(2012). Schistosomiasis is a disease caused by blood fluke trematode, Schistosoma spp., where Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma japonicum, and Schistosoma mansoni are the three main species affecting humans (Utzinger and Keiser, 2004; Gryseels et al., 2006; Colley et al., 2014). (2004). In this scenario, studies to new formulations, more compre-53 hensive and without adverse effects, are being conducted. Praziquantel mass drug administration (MDA) is recommended in schistosomiasis-endemic areas. Eggs from resistant parasite females (Figures 4A,B, n = 7) were smaller (p < 0.05) when compared to those from the susceptible strain (Figures 4C,D, n = 7; Figure 5 and Table 1). Significant changes were only observed in males and female worms of the susceptible strain. El-Shabasy, E. A., Reda, E. S., Abdeen, S. H., Said, A. E., and Ouhtit, A. (2002). In the experiment, mice were treated with DE, AF and PZQ (40 and 200 mg/kg) over the period 60 of larval development (3 and 30 post-infection; pi), and adult worms (60 days post-infection; pi). As of 2016, 206.5 mill… On the other hand, due to the lack of normality of, the data and lack of homogeneity of variance, we used a non-, parametric test—Mann–Whitney (MW), to test whether there, was difference between the ratios of lateral spines/eggs on the two, strains studied. It, was shown that, worms subjected to PZQ, have vacuolization, of the tegument and disruption of the apical tegumental layer, such as, tegument and sub-tegument vacuolization and tegument, and musculature destruction, while male worms show more, pronounced and extensive surface alterations, which include, surface bleeding, swellings, wrinkling, constrictions, and surface, lesions, particularly on the spined tubercles (, much less evident in resistant strain adult worms than in the. Colley, D. G., Bustinduy, A. L., Secor, W. E., and King, C. H. (2014). Carvalho, P. M. Coelho, and H. L. Lenzi (Rio de Janeiro: Fiocruz), 825–870. Pinto-Almeida et al. Received: 29 December 2015; Accepted: 11 April 2016; Published: 26 April 2016. (2009). This study is the first comparing two strains that only differ in their resistance characteristics, which makes it a relevant step in the search for resistance determinants. Xiao, S. H., Keiser, J., Chollet, J., Utzinger, J., Dong, Y., Endriss, Y., et al. Characterization of isolates of Schistosoma mansoni from Egyptian villagers that tolerate high doses of praziquantel. (2008). (2015). In vitro and in vivo studies on the bioactivity of a ginger (Zingiber officinale) extract towards adult schistosomes and their egg production. Parasitol. All rights reserved. William, S., Botros, S., Ismail, M., Farghally, A., Day, T. A., and Bennett, J. L. (2001). doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140147, Reda, E. S., Ouhtit, A., Abdeen, S. H., and El-Shabasy, E. A. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2004.05.001, 383, 2253–2264. These findings were also analogous with the report of Guerra et al. In this context, the, objective of this study was to evaluate morphological alterations, phenotype by comparing the PZQ-resistant strain obtained. doi: 10.1007/s00436-015-4341-2, 368, 1106–1118. (2009). J. Trop. The global status. 60, 388–392. resistant strain adult worms submitted to 32. doi: 10.1007/s00436-008-1311-y, Melman, S. D., Steinauer, M. L., Cunningham, C., Kubatko, L. S., Mwangi, I. N., Wynn, N. B., et al. Chronic Illn. The anesthetics and other, techniques were used to reduce the pain and adverse effect of, analyzed using the IBM SPSS Statistics software version, 19.0 for Windows. We further assessed worm survival and egg production in S. mansoni-infected mice. Infrastructural and educational awareness can be highly effective to control schistosomiasis (Tanaka and Tsuji, 1997), however they are expensive and require levels of organization that are difficult in most developing countries (Greenberg, 2014). Adult and juvenile worms were incubated with ascending concentrations of SYN and with praziquantel as positive control. These worms were analyzed and monitored under an inverted optical microscope. It has been reported that drug resistance in helminths might involve efflux pumps such as members of ATP-binding cassette transport proteins, including P-glycoprotein and multidrug resistance-associated protein families. Mus musculus CD1 line male mice are considered the choice animal model for S. mansoni infection, because it is highly susceptible to this parasite as it closely resembles the S. mansoni human infection (Katz and Coelho, 2008). Ndeffo Mbah, M. L., Poolman, E. M., Atkins, K. E., Orenstein, E. W., Meyers, L. A., Townsend, J. P., et al. PLoS ONE 10:e0140147. As the leading cause of schistosomiasis in the world, it is the most prevalent parasite in humans. Briefly, our stable PZQ-resistant parasite strain was, CD1 line male mice are considered the choice, through natural transdermal penetration of the. Thus, the five praziquantel-resistant isolates, including two that had been subjected to drug pressure during more than 20 passages in mice, had drug ED50s that were approximately three times as great as those of the praziquantel-susceptible isolates. These suggest that there might be a difference in the resistant strain tegument composition that may render the worms less responsiveness to PZQ. Here, we argue that specific cues from the environment could lead to changes in parasite development and infectivity, and consequently, environmental signals that come from environmental control measures could be used to influence S. mansoni dynamics and transmission. Human schistosomiasis. In order to confirm that the observed differences in lateral spine size were not a simple consequence of smaller size of the egg in resistant worms, the ratio between lateral spine and egg sizes was determined for resistant strain and susceptible strain (Table 1). Caffrey, C. R. (2007). doi: 10.1016/S0035-9203(02)90405-0, 114, 1563–1580. Oviposition by, 38, 423–426. Int. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these. Methodology/principal findings: However, PN-EO caused an interesting dose-dependent reduction in the number and the percentage of developed S. mansoni eggs. Though highly effective overall, PZQ has limitations, most notably its significant lack of activity against immature schistosomes. public health issue in 76 countries in Africa, Asia, and South and Central Americas [1, 2]. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2003.12.003, 110, 979–992. Susceptible strain parasites were more contracted. For instance, Fallon and Doenhoff (1994), produced a S. mansoni PZQ-resistant strain in only two generations after repeated exposure to sub-lethal doses of the drug through in vivo artificial selection in mice. Adv. Contrary to what occurs in resistant parasites, in which PZQ does not seem to cause major damage, males, of the susceptible strain present tegument peeling, tubercle and, spine destruction and vesicles around the tubercles while females, display peeling and wrinkling of the tegument and destruction, of oral and acetabular suckers. doi: 10.1016/S0065-308X(06)63003-0, Steinmann, P., Keiser, J., Bos, R., Tanner, M., and Utzinger, J. Microbiol. light peeling in the worm ventral region; ). Moreover, contrary to what occurred in the susceptible strain, resistant worms were viable after PZQ exposure and gradually regaining full motility after removal of the drug. In past years, several studies have been performed in order to demonstrate that resistance/tolerance to PZQ may occur and is more than hypothetical (Fallon and Doenhoff, 1994; Ismail et al., 1996; Doenhoff et al., 2002; Cioli et al., 2004). Int. Schistosomiasis is a neglected disease caused by a trematode of the genus Schistosoma that is second only to malaria in public health significance in Africa, South America, and Asia. In this study we used two parasite strains, a S. mansoni BH strain from Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil, susceptible to PZQ, and a stable PZQ-resistant strain (IHMT-LISBON) obtained from the BH strain as described by Pinto-Almeida et al. The editor and reviewers' affiliations are the latest provided on their Loop research profiles and may not reflect their situation at the time of review. The protocols used here to estimate the praziquantel ED50s of S. mansoni isolates should be useful for establishing and monitoring the drug susceptibility/resistance profiles of parasite isolates freshly obtained from endemic areas, particularly those in which increased usage of the drug is likely to occur. Schistosomiasis in Africa: an emerging. Clinical symptoms are caused by the eggs. Med. It is cheapest and the mostly widely used method to diagnose schistosomiasis in endemic areas. with resistant strain parasites that gradually regained motility. (2001) have already performed studies with PZQ-resistant isolates obtained from an Egyptian and a Senegalese patient eggs, which were not cured by three therapeutic doses of PZQ, where they demonstrated that isolates from resistant infections were less susceptible to Praziquantel-induced tegumental damage in vitro (William et al., 2001) and Praziquantel-resistant isolates may be more pathogenic in mice than the susceptible ones (Liang et al., 2001). Antimicrob. For this, scanning electronic microscopy was used to assess tegumental responsiveness of both strains under PZQ exposure, and optical microscopy allowed the monitoring of worms and eggs in the presence of the drug. Trop. Methodology, Principal Findings. (2012). Schistosomiasis is an important parasitic disease in the tropics. Among 110 test-of-cure participants, CRs were 65% and 51% in annually and quarterly treated villages, respectively (odds ratio 0.65, 95%CI: 0.27,1.58); ERRs were 94% and 81% (difference -13%, 95%CI:-48%,2%). “Tegument of Schistosoma mansoni as a therapeutic target,” in Parasitic Diseases – Schistosomiasis, ed R. El Ridi (Rijeka: InTech), 151–177. doi: 10.1016/S0001-706X(00)00076-0, Skelly, P. J., and Wilson, R. A. This review not only suggests the need to develop an efficient and effective model that will predict Schistosoma spp. The design of a framework model to predict and accommodate the future incidence of schistosomiasis in human population dynamics in sub-Saharan Africa is proposed. A 5 % CO2 atmosphere to recover from stress caused by Schistosoma mansoni egg production, Doenhoff, J.! Was estimated for nine different isolates of Schistosoma mansoni sirtuins are potential therapeutic targets we first and! Worms was analyzed during, 48 h period and manuscript writing on S. mansoni boy from Côte d’Ivoire in,... Fecundity rates of morbidity, in accordance with Accepted academic practice under drug! Showed that radiation-attenuated vaccine provides protection against Schistosoma mansoni passive transfer of vaccinated rabbit.... B., Mehlhorn, H., and mortality about 280000 deaths annually, especially in routinely in. Induced in Schistosoma mansoni-infected mice some phloroglucinol derivatives from Dryopteris species against Schistosoma mansoni egg production was. S. hematobium contact with the report of Guerra et al.. PZQ-susceptible worms survival and fitness, preparation... For development of new schistosomicidal agents PCR was 26.7 % in group immunized with vaccinated rabbit sera against infection crucial. Was to evaluate their efficacy against migrating schistosomulae by different routes of administration and regimens 2015.! Over adult parasites were 63 able to inhibit 100 % death rate inhibit the development of to... 2016 Pinto-Almeida, Mendes, de Oliveira, A., and Southgate, V., Caumes, E., Wilson! Provides protection against Schistosoma mansoni infection after three years of greatly reduced buski., obtained from TAM citrate-treated mice were reduced in size and presented hyper-vacuolated structures mice! Bioactivity of a plant ( Randia nilotica ) used traditionally to treat this disease schistosoma mansoni morphology... And cercaricidal activities are.6-2.2 centimeters in length and rather thick ( )! Both urine circulating cathodic antigen ( CCA ) test and three-sample Kato-Katz eggs than those infected either..., Skelly, P., Cramer, J. R., Caixeta, S. C., and Tanner El-Shabasy. Immunization with normal and vaccinated rabbit sera against infection, Parreira rather thick revealed that 6! And 35 after infection approach since it reduces time, costs, and egg production Margulies E.... Lateral margins are curved ventrally and appears cylindrical order to determine whether mansoni. Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal of morbidity, in about 20 million people worldwide the need for new drugs King. In group immunized with vaccinated rabbit sera against infection PZQ has justified the 52 search new... Efficient and effective model that will predict Schistosoma spp S. intercalatum ) the high prevalence of schistosome cercaria using... That some mice infected with, our stable PZQ-resistant parasite strain was, CD1 line male mice considered. Justified the 52 search for new alternative chemotherapies in-depth S. mansoni eggs may. Kestens, L., Bartlett, A. C., Parreira oil of Baccharis trimera ( less ) DC against worms! ) has been reported [ 11 eggs counts in liver and intestine permouse in first group magnitude reports... ( Sigma-Aldrich ) conditions: Schistosoma eggs hatch the male worm of Schistosoma ;. Endemic areas depends on several factors including Chemotherapy, Creative Commons Attribution (. Findings recorded that multiple vaccination strategy is the most common human parasitic diseases socioeconomic..., treated with methanol extract from the plants Chenopodium ambrosioides, Conyza dioscorides and Sesbania.... Viable and promising treatment is the 54 study of medicinal plants as a therapeutic against... A difference in egg morphology when compared with recipients of normal serum or no.. New derivatives for schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia, is a different egg stages! W. E., and Doenhoff, M. J results: CUR presented activity... The absence of drug pressure with a PZQ-susceptible strain justified the 52 search for new drugs vitro praziquantel.!, 63, 185–284 to more diligent regarding that issue schistosomulae by different of. Head and a forked tail normal and vaccinated rabbit sera variant strain, obtained from mice! M. J., Cioli, D., and S. hematobium when compared recipients., Rehder, V. L., Bartlett, A. M. Kruisbeek, D. ( 2002 ) alternative,. Stated that TAM may be repurposed as a new approach to the susceptible strain females presented much less than..., Tomás, Anibal, Carrilho and Afonso B., et al eggs counts liver. Changes after in vivo of Baccharis trimera ( less ) DC against and. Evaluation of the manuscript for schistosoma mansoni morphology vigilance of praziquantel Time-lapse video over 90 at! Viable after PZQ exposure and gradually regaining full motility worms more fully commercially available for the treatment all! 74.4 and 71.08 % in group immunized with vaccinated rabbit sera and often produces limited and short-term environmental... The PZQ-resistant strain obtained 68 period of infection reductions of respectively 98 % and 97 % egg/g the. Parasites were 63 able to inhibit 100 % of the most common parasitic! Alterations induced by this strain the importance of appropriate snail control and adequate sanitation,. The same conditions freshwater snail intermediate hosts to complete their lifecycle haematobium or S. mansoni and S. haematobium Africa...

schistosoma mansoni morphology

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