[citation needed] Several applications have tried to replicate this patch as closely as possible, although one called Redlock is the most accurate, supporting the enabling of builds' Metro UI from 7850-8056. [79] SmartScreen filtering integrated into Windows,[80] Family Safety offers Parental controls, which allows parents to monitor and manage their children's activities on a device with activity reports and safety controls. "[64][67][82][83][84] By prohibiting Windows 8 from running on ARM systems that allow the user to disable Secure Boot, Microsoft raised concerns,[85][86][87] particularly in the Linux community, who are concerned that this marks an attempt by Microsoft to exclude competing operating systems from computers built to be compatible with Windows 8. It was also probably the first appearance of the Metro-style font, and its wallpaper had the text shhh. Each tile represents an application, and can display relevant information such as the number of unread messages for an e-mail application or the current temperature on a weather application. Devices supporting near field communication need to have visual marks to help users locate and use the proximity technology. Its existence was first announced in January 2011 at Consumer Electronics Show. Developer This build also leaked in the x86 architecture as a debug build, with the setup having a slight change - the theme was now Windows Basic in setup, rather than Classic. A user can now log into Windows with a Microsoft account, which can be used to access services and synchronize applications and settings between devices. [75] Additionally, the Blue Screen of Death has been updated with a simpler and modern design with less technical information displayed. (MSFT)", "More on Microsoft 'Jupiter' and what it means for Windows 8", "Windows 8 Build 7850 M1 Has Been Leaked", "Windows 8 build 7955 sporting new 'Black' Screen of Death", "Live from Microsoft's Windows 8 preview event at Computex 2011", "Windows 8 Developer Preview Available Tonight", "Microsoft releases Windows 8 Developer Preview, announces Windows Store (update: it's out early! If you’re using another operating system (Windows 7, Windows … The start screen was very primitive, being a white screen with gray tiles. [116][117] The traditional desktop environment for running desktop applications is accessed via a tile on the Start screen. The first three have almost the same hardware requirements as that of Windows 7. Some media outlets falsely reported that the SKU associated with this plan, "Windows 8.1 with Bing", was a variant which would be a free or low-cost variant of Windows 8 for consumers using older versions of Windows. Closed source and shared source 32-bit SKUs of Windows 8 only support a maximum of 4 GB of RAM. Windows RT, a version of Windows 8 for systems with ARM processors, will only support applications included with the system (such as a special version of Office 2013), supplied through Windows Update, or applications acquired through the Windows Store. [225][226][227][228], personal computer operating system by Microsoft released in 2012, windows.microsoft.com/en-US/windows-8/meet, x86 2nd generation, first conceived in 1978, surveillance by the United States government, "Microsoft: 60 million Windows 8 licenses sold to date", "Microsoft prepares rethink on Windows 8 flagship software", "Windows 8.1: a first look at what Microsoft is changing", "Windows 8.1 Support Lifecycle Policy FAQ", "Nearly 370M IE users have just 6 weeks to upgrade", "Beginning January 12, 2016, only the most current version of Internet Explorer available for a operating system will receive technical support and security updates", "Internet Explorer Support Lifecycle Policy FAQ", "Desktop Windows Version Market Share Worldwide", "DejaBlue: New BlueKeep-Style Bugs Renew The Risk Of A Windows worm", "20-Year-Old Bug in Legacy Microsoft Code Plagues All Windows Users", "Steven Sinofsky, Tami Reller, Julie Larson-Green, Antoine Leblond, and Michael Angiulo: Windows 8 Consumer Preview", "Microsoft confirms ARM support is coming in Windows, will play nice with SoCs too", "CES: Windows to run on ARM chips, says Microsoft", "Microsoft Announces Support of System on a Chip Architectures From Intel, AMD, and ARM for Next Version of Windows", "OK, So Windows 8 Is Coming To ARM Tablets...someday. For example, Pro added BitLocker, Hyper-V, the ability to join a domain, and the ability to install Windows Media Center as a paid add-on. For the same reasons, Windows Media Center is not included by default on Windows 8, but Windows Media Center and DVD playback support can be purchased in the "Professional Pack" (which upgrades the system to Windows 8 Professional) or "Media Center Pack" add-on for Windows 8 Professional. Secure boot is a controversial[62][63][64][65] UEFI-based feature to "prevent unauthorized firmware, operating systems, or UEFI drivers from running at boot time". [25] Windows 8 was made available for student downloads (with a DreamSpark Premium subscription) on August 22, 2012, earlier than advertised. [46] Microsoft planned to hold a launch event on October 25, 2012[47] and release Windows 8 for general availability on the next day. A convertible can be transformed into a tablet where the attached input devices are hidden or removed leaving the display as the only input mechanism. [189], In January 2014, Hewlett-Packard began a promotion for desktops running Windows 7, saying that it was "back by popular demand". If a mobile broadband device is integrated into a tablet or convertible system, then an assisted GPS radio is required. [151][152][153], Retail distribution of Windows 8 has since been discontinued in favor of Windows 8.1. Microsoft had similarly cut the price of Windows XP licenses to compete against the early waves of Linux-based netbooks. The formerly flag-shaped logo has been transformed into four window panes, perspective was added, and the entire logo will be rendered in a single solid color, which will depend on the user's personalization changes. [182] As the holiday shopping season wrapped up, Windows 8 sales continued to lag, even as Apple reported brisk sales. After registration on the site (which must be done from the eligible PC so that its copy of Windows 7 may be validated), registrants will receive a confirmation email. [154][208][209] Volume license customers and subscribers to MSDN Plus and TechNet Plus were initially unable to obtain the RTM version upon its release; a spokesperson said the policy was changed to allow Microsoft to work with OEMs "to ensure a quality experience at general availability. [7] Microsoft's advertising budget of US$1.5–1.8 billion was significantly larger than the US$200 million campaign used to promote Windows 95. Windows Mobile 6.5: November 8, 2010 Windows Phone 7: March 1, 2011 Windows … Hybrid Boot will use hibernation technology to allow faster startup times by saving the Windows core's memory to the hard disk and reloading it upon boot. Build 8128 is the earliest leaked post-Developer Preview build. Other sections of Windows, for example the Task Manager, were redesigned. [93], Windows Store apps run within a new set of APIs known as Windows Runtime, which supports programming languages such as C, C++, Visual Basic .NET, C#, along with HTML5 and JavaScript. He noted that while forcing all users to use the new touch-oriented interface was a risky move for Microsoft as a whole, it was necessary in order to push development of apps for the Windows Store. Initially, Adobe Flash would only work on sites included on a "Compatibility View" whitelist; however, after feedback from users and additional compatibility tests, an update in March 2013 changed this behavior to use a smaller blacklist of sites with known compatibility issues instead, allowing Flash to be used on most sites by default. The new Windows RT edition will only be available preinstalled by OEMs on ARM-based devices while the Enterprise edition will only be available through volume licensing.[107]. Microsoft denied the claims in a number of posts on the Chinese social network Sina Weibo, which stated that the company had never "assisted any government in an attack of another government or clients" or provided client data to the U.S. government, never "provided any government the authority to directly visit" or placed any backdoors in its products and services, and that it had never concealed government requests for client data. [98] Alongside the traditional Control Panel, a new simplified and touch-optimized settings app known as "PC Settings" is used for basic configuration and user settings. [21][22] On August 15, 2012, Windows 8 was made available to download for MSDN, TechNet and DreamSpark subscribers. Most recently, Microsoft has confirmed that it will not release a second title update to Windows 8.1, but rather continue with its … Final release [7] Microsoft also released the Windows Developer Preview (build 8102) of Windows 8 the same day, which included SDKs and developer tools (such as Visual Studio Express and Expression Blend) for developing applications for Windows 8's new interface. [58], Microsoft released minimum hardware requirements for new tablet and convertible devices designed for Windows 8, and defined a convertible form factor as a standalone device that combines the PC, display and rechargeable power source with a mechanically attached keyboard and pointing device in a single chassis. Many of these features were adoptions from Windows Phone. [51] Windows 8 was made available to Software Assurance customers on August 16, 2012. The boot screen was changed to say Windows Developer Preview, Metro was updated to be more like the Metro in Developer Preview (although it was still different) and a new wallpaper was introduced. A month before the BUILD conference was held, Microsoft opened a new blog called "Building Windows 8" for users and developers on August 15, 2011. [1] Beginning in Windows 8, Microsoft began releasing regular, major updates to Windows 8. Designed by Pentagram partner Paula Scher, the Windows logo was changed to resemble a set of four window panes. Build 8056 introduced several changes to the interface and small stability improvements. [25] The leaked copy was Enterprise edition, with other editions leaking later. [49][50] On August 15, 2012, Windows 8 was made available to download for MSDN and TechNet subscribers. In addition to update 2835517, this update also applies to Windows 8.1 Pro N/K for EDU and Windows 8.1 N/K with Bing. Microsoft started moving away from this architecture after Windows 95. In October 2013, Chrome's app was changed to mimic the desktop environment used by Chrome OS. After the deadline, only critical security updates were to be released for users on these platforms. Windows 8's tablet market share has also been growing steadily, with 7.4% of tablets running Windows in Q1 2013 according to Strategy Analytics, up from nothing just a year before. For all who like Windows 8 Release Preview theme more than Windows 8 RTM theme, I am happy to share this theme. Windows RT does not support running IA-32 or x64 applications. Update for Windows 8 (KB2792476) Important! If you’re buying a new computer or tablet for your home, you’ll […] Small businesses will choose Windows 8 Pro, and larger businesses will want Windows 8 Enterprise. [87] Some pre-built devices may be described as "certified" by Microsoft; these must have secure boot enabled by default, and provide ways for users to disable or re-configure the feature. The developers of both Chrome and Firefox committed to developing Metro-style variants of their browsers; while Chrome's "Windows 8 mode" (discontinued on Chrome version 49) uses a full-screen version of the existing desktop interface, Firefox's variant (which was first made available on the "Aurora" release channel in September 2013) uses a touch-optimized interface inspired by the Android variant of Firefox. Refresh restores all Windows files to their original state while keeping settings, files, and apps, while reset takes the computer back to factory default condition. Both open the new Start screen, which replaces the Start menu. [23][103] Following these reports, the terms "Modern UI-style apps",[104] "Windows 8-style apps"[105] and "Windows Store apps" began to be used by various Microsoft documents and material to refer to the new apps. The "full version software" SKU, which was more expensive but could be installed on computers without an eligible OS or none at all, was discontinued. ARM-based Windows RT devices must have secure boot permanently enabled. Microsoft indicated that due to improvements to its testing infrastructure, general improvements of this nature are to be released more frequently through Windows Update instead of being relegated to OEMs and service packs only. [151] Windows 8.1 with Bing is a special OEM-specific SKU of Windows 8.1 subsidized by Microsoft's Bing search engine. [72][73][74][75] Microsoft addressed the issue in a blog post,[76] stating that "At the end of the day, the customer is in control of their PC. However, Ni Guangnan of the Chinese Academy of Sciences had also previously warned that Windows 8 could allegedly expose users to surveillance by the United States government due to its heavy use of Internet-based services. [94] The Free Software Foundation has commented on the issue,[95][96][97] covering the use of GRUB and both Ubuntu and Fedora's approaches.[98]. [2][3] Version 3 has been in beta for some time but the final version is included with Windows 8 (and Windows Server 2012 which has also been released to manufacturing). https://www.nextofwindows.com/windows-8-release-preview-released-iso- As part of a launch promotion, Microsoft offered Windows 8 Pro upgrades at a discounted price of US$39.99 online, or $69.99 for retail box from its launch until January 31, 2013; afterward the Windows 8 price has been $119.99 and the Pro price $199.99. The "Windows 7" logo was temporarily replaced with text displaying "Microsoft Confidential". [169] However, Tom Warren of The Verge stated that Microsoft's addition of the Store was simply responding to the success of both Apple and Google in pursuing the "curated application store approach. KB Articles: KB2768703. [106] An MSDN page explaining the Metro design language uses the term "Modern design" to refer to the language as a whole.[107]. [6] It is the successor to Windows 7. [57], To receive logo certification, Microsoft requires that a system resume from standby in 2 seconds or less on x86 systems. [52] Windows 8 was made available for students with a DreamSpark Premium subscription on August 22, 2012, earlier than advertised. [86], Windows 8 supports a feature of the UEFI specification known as "Secure boot", which uses a public-key infrastructure to verify the integrity of the operating system and prevent unauthorized programs such as bootkits from infecting the device's boot process. [55][56], Microsoft began an advertising campaign centered around Windows 8 and its Surface tablet in October 2012, starting with its first television advertisement premiering on October 14, 2012. Windows division president Steven Sinofsky demonstrated an early build of the port on prototype devices, while Microsoft CEO Steve Ballmer announced the company's goal for Windows to be "everywhere on every kind of device without compromise. The build was identical to Windows 7 except for the wallpaper being different - the same one from the Beta and Release Candidate. 1.41MB) to download Windows. Microsoft offers four main versions of Windows 8, but you’ll probably want only one: the aptly titled “Windows 8” version. On August 1, 2012, Windows 8 graduated from the development stage and was released to manufacturing. [20] However, only a day after its release to manufacturing, a copy of the final version of Windows 8 Enterprise N (produced for European markets) leaked to the web and several days later there were Professional and Enterprise leaks both x86 and x64. Milestone 2, Build 7955, was leaked on April 25, 2011. In none of Microsoft's announcements o… [136][135], Microsoft released minimum hardware requirements for tablet and laplet devices to be "certified" for Windows 8 and defined a convertible form factor as a standalone device that combines the PC, display, and rechargeable power source with a mechanically attached keyboard and pointing device in a single chassis. [157]), The 64-bit variant runs on CPUs compatible with x86 8th generation (known as x86-64, or x64) or newer, and can run 32-bit and 64-bit programs. October 26, 2012 However, this is still well below Android and iOS, which posted 43.4% and 48.2% market share respectively, although both operating systems have been on the market much longer than Windows 8. Lots of features have been removed in Windows 8, like the traditional Start menu. However, its detailed build number reveals that the build was created on September 22, 2010. [105], An optional installation DVD will also be available for an additional fee (likely $15, plus shipping and handling, based on what the downloadable $39.99 upgrades have been told they'll pay for one); or those who download the Windows 8 Professional upgrade will be able to create their own bootable installation media on DVD or USB flash drive from the downloaded Windows 8 Professional upgrade. [212], Windows 8.1 addressed a number of criticisms faced by Windows 8 upon its release, with additional customization options for the Start screen, the restoration of a visible Start button on the desktop, the ability to snap up to four apps on a single display, and the ability to boot to the desktop instead of the Start screen. [105], The Windows 8 Professional upgrades obtained via these promotional prices will include 90-days of no-charge support from Microsoft which will begin at the moment the Windows 8 is installed and activation is completed. [107] The other editions are not available in retail. [41] On May 28, 2012, Windows 8 Release Preview (Standard Simplified Chinese x64 edition, not China-specific variant, build 8400) was leaked online on various Chinese and BitTorrent websites. Windows Market share had fallen to 1.06% by October 2020. The latter, however, runs on tablet computers with ARM architecture and has different hardware requirements. At least one controller and exposed port. The term was phased out in August 2012; a Microsoft spokesperson denied rumors that the change was related to a potential trademark issue, and stated that "Metro" was only a codename that would be replaced prior to Windows 8's release. [160] Windows Store apps can either support both the x86 and ARM architectures, or compiled to support a specific architecture. [6], A screenshot of Windows 8 Developer Preview running on a multi-monitor system, showcasing many features. Build 8176 featured new branding - Windows 8 Beta. Windows 8 development started before Windows 7 had shipped[1] in 2009. At least one controller and exposed port. A Microsoft spokesperson however, denied these reports and stated that the use of the term "Metro" to describe these apps was merely a codename that would be phased out. The upgrade must be performed via registration on the Microsoft Windows Upgrade Offer website. [98] If written in some "high-level" languages, apps written for Windows Runtime can be compatible with both Intel and ARM variants of Windows,[99] otherwise they are not binary code compatible. On August 1, 2012, Windows 8 (build 9200[45]) was released to manufacturing with the build number 6.2.9200.16384. [98] As a form of multi-tasking, apps can be snapped to the side of a screen. The Xinhua News Agency claimed that Windows 8 was being banned in protest of Microsoft's support lifecycle policy and the end of support for Windows XP (which, as of January 2014, had a market share of 49% in China), as the government "obviously cannot ignore the risks of running an OS without guaranteed technical support." [118][119] Swiping from the left edge of a touchscreen or clicking in the top-left corner of the screen allows one to switch between apps and Desktop. [141][142], Windows 8 is available in three different editions, of which the lowest edition, branded simply as Windows 8, and Windows 8 Pro, were sold at retail in most countries, and as pre-loaded software on new computers. Unlike 8, 8.1 is available as "full version software" at both retail and online for download that does not require a previous version of Windows in order to be installed. This build includes a new wallpaper and several changes, such as the new logo replacing the old one and appearing in the About Windows dialog box. [26] This build introduced a new ribbon in Windows Explorer. Apps which do not survive may, however, be reinstalled (assuming user still has all installation files and/or media, and authentication/registration codes/keys and/or serial numbers). Both builds 7850 and 7955 leaked alongside Windows Server 2012 build 7959. Build 8032 changed the branding to Windows Developer Preview and was the last build to use Windows 7 branding anywhere. [4][5] It can only access previous versions of shared files stored on a Windows Server computer. [88][89][90], Fedora Linux, in order to get around secure boot for their upcoming release, purchased a security key from VeriSign at a discounted price of US$99 through the Windows Dev Center,[91][92][93] causing some controversy in the Fedora community. [174] Tom Warren of The Verge wrote that the new interface was "as stunning as it is surprising", contributing to an "incredibly personal" experience once it is customized by the user, but had a steep learning curve, and was awkward to use with a keyboard and mouse. [104], The Windows 8 Professional upgrade for Windows 7 users will be easiest and most seamless of the upgrade paths because all user settings, personal files, and apps remain intact. "[210][211] However, after criticism, Microsoft reversed its decision and released the RTM build on MSDN and TechNet on September 9, 2013. applications, background processes and Windows processes), friendly names for processes and a new option which allows users to search the web to find information about obscure processes. [73] For easier management of files and folders, Windows 8 introduces the ability to move selected files or folders via drag and drop from a parent folder into a subfolder listed within the breadcrumb hierarchy of the address bar in File Explorer. [101] These two methods come on the heels of Microsoft's confirming, in late May 2012,[102][103] that it would offer a $14.99 Windows 8 Professional upgrade to purchasers of new PCs with Windows 7 pre-installed on them. No mandate is made regarding the installation of third-party certificates that would enable running alternative software. [128] Included in this standard are a number of security-specific requirements designed to improve physical security, notably against Cold Boot Attacks. It is part of the Windows NT family of operating systems, succeeds Windows 7 and precedes Windows 8.1 and Windows 10. [27] They will be available only through Windows Store apps such as Facebook, Twitter, Netflix, iHeartRADIO, Rhapsody, Nick, Halo: Spartan Assault, Skype, Microsoft Solitaire Collection, Discovery Communications, Watch ABC, The New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, Amazon, NOOK, Angry Birds series, Cut the Rope, ESPN huluPLUS, Freshpaint, kindle, Wikipedia, VEVO, USA, TODAY, CNN, eBay, the CW, Ancestry, Zappos.com, FX Networks, Shazam, Crackle, Allrecipes, ABC Family, Wordament, HF: Brain Attack, Disney, CBS, Bank of America, TWC, AccuWeather, Audible, Foursquare, Flashcards Pro, Periodic Table, NBC, WWE, myHomework, 7-Eleven, Inc, StumbleUpon, OpenTable, Dictionary.com, Newegg, Zinio and MLB.TV. [134][135] However, on August 2016, Microsoft again extended the Skylake support policy until the end of support for Windows 7 and 8.1 (2020 and 2023, respectively). Windows 7 (2009) 1.4 M. The new Windows is here, discover all of its new features! [43] Major items in the Release Preview included the addition of Sports, Travel, and News apps, along with an integrated variant of Adobe Flash Player in Internet Explorer. Updated certification requirements were implemented to coincide with Windows 8.1. Thank You. Why were Windows 8 customers required to move to Windows 8.1 two years after the general availability? One edition, Windows RT, runs on some system-on-a-chip devices with mobile 32-bit ARM (ARMv7) processors. Advertisement . Although reaction towards its performance improvements, security enhancements, and improved support for touchscreen devices was positive, the new user interface of the operating system was widely criticized for being potentially confusing and difficult to learn, especially when used with a keyboard and mouse instead of a touchscreen. [57] As part of its campaign, Microsoft set up 34 pop-up stores inside malls to showcase the Surface product line, provided training for retail employees in partnership with Intel, and collaborated with the electronics store chain Best Buy to design expanded spaces to showcase devices. The amended requirement is intended to allow "greater design flexibility" for future products.[139]. The next step was the Consumer Preview, sometimes called Windows 8 Beta in the builds before it. [148] Several PC manufacturers offered rebates and refunds on Windows 8 upgrades obtained through the promotion on select models, such as Hewlett-Packard (in the U.S. and Canada on select models), and Acer (in Europe on selected Ultrabook models). [120], Several notable features have been removed in Windows 8; support for playing DVD-Video was removed from Windows Media Player due to the cost of licensing the necessary decoders (especially for devices which do not include optical disc drives at all) and the prevalence of online streaming services. [99][101] A method to sideload apps from outside Windows Store is available to devices running Windows 8 Enterprise and joined to a domain; Windows 8 Pro and Windows RT devices that are not part of a domain can also sideload apps, but only after special product keys are obtained through volume licensing. 5 . Storage Spaces will allow users to combine different sized hard disks into virtual drives and specify mirroring, parity, or no redundancy on a folder-by-folder basis. Microsoft aims for a simpler approach to computing with Windows 8, and that simpler approach applies to the versions of Windows 8 you’ll see released later this year. [155], The three desktop editions of Windows 8 support 32-bit and 64-bit architectures; retail copies of Windows 8 include install DVDs for both architectures, while the online installer automatically installs the variant corresponding with the architecture of the system's existing Windows installation. Windows 8.1 remains officially unsupported on all newer CPU families, and neither AMD or Intel will provide official chipset drivers for Windows operating systems other than Windows 10. However, reports surfaced that due to potential trademark issues with the German company Metro AG, Microsoft officials had begun to advise its Windows developers to stop using the term. [97], Windows 8 introduces a new style of application, Windows Store apps. [40] Like the Developer Preview, the Consumer Preview expired on January 15, 2013. Then, after Windows 8's general release, said customers will receive another email with a promotion code and instructions for purchasing and downloading the Windows 8 Professional upgrade; which promotion code will be redeemed during the upgrade ordering process to receive the promotional $14.99 price. [145], Windows 8 was distributed as a retail box product on DVD, and through a digital download that could be converted into DVD or USB install media. [81][82][83] Windows 8 also provides integrated system recovery through the new "Refresh" and "Reset" functions,[84] including system recovery from USB drive. With its release, it received a mixed reaction and feedback from users and obtained a more positive response than that of Windows 8. Download. A tutorial explaining how to use the new Metro interface was included and the look and feel of the desktop was subtly changed to be more in line with the Metro interface. On July 2, 2012, Microsoft announced that once Windows 8 is generally released on October 26, from then till January 31, 2013, there will be two (one costing $69.99, and one costing $39.99) ways to upgrade to Windows 8 Professional from earlier Windows versions. [ 92 ] other bundled apps provide the ability to link Flickr and Facebook introduces a new black screen Lock... Same as 8176, although this was also offered for free desktop and File Explorer in the desktop does. Gps radio is required a tablet or convertible system, then an assisted GPS is. Of system files either support both the x86 variant of build 8330 was a build in between Consumer. 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Interface based on Microsoft 's philosophy is to provide customers with the build conference on 13... 2012 build 7959 deadline, only critical security updates were to be more like final. It easier for touchscreen users to view their profile and Gamerscore were redesigned make way for new.... Released the first build where the text of a the Microsoft Windows upgrade Offer website, leaked on December,., showcasing many features intended for workstations, PCs and mobile devices 8 employs a new or. Which now need to adhere to a mixed reaction and feedback from users and obtained a more positive than. Million times hinder the use of alternate operating systems, however, its detailed build number that. Businesses will choose Windows 8 Consumer Preview, the minimum system requirements Windows! In this standard are a number of security-specific requirements designed to improve Physical,. Is deprecated [ 97 ], Windows 8 to the final version RTM! Page was last edited on 6 December 2020, at 06:30 support ended on July,. Tablet computers with ARM architecture and has different hardware requirements as that of Windows 8 required! Is accessed via a tile on the Start button in the top-left corner of the was! Strategic Task automation platform and a core component of the new Start screen for example the Task,. And choose `` release Preview is set to expire on January 16, 2013 7850 and 7955 alongside! Conference on September 13, 2011 two years after the deadline, only critical security updates were be...
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