Rettung abgeschossener alliierter Piloten und Sabotage waren nun die Hauptaktionen der beginnenden Résistance gegen die Besatzung in der Wallonie und in Flandern. I saw his face all right, but there was no skin on it, and he could not see me. De Gaulle's influence grew in France, and by 1942 one resistance leader called him "the only possible leader for the France that fights". Between June 1943 – May 1944, the Resistance damaged 1, 822 trains, destroyed 200 passenger cars, damaged about 1, 500 passenger cars, destroyed about 2, 500 freight cars and damaged about 8,000 freight cars. [98] On 14 June 1942, a 12-year-old Jewish boy committed suicide in Paris as his classmates were shunning the boy with the yellow star. The liberation of Corsica in September 1943, a clear demonstration of the strength of communist insurgency, was accomplished by the FTP, an effective force not yet integrated into the Secret Army and not involved with General Henri Giraud, the Free French or the political unification of the Resistance. [59] As the Communists were used to operating in secret, were tightly disciplined, and had a number of veterans of the Spanish Civil War, they played a disproportionate role in the Resistance. [79], On 22 June 1941, Germany launched Operation Barbarossa and invaded the Soviet Union. Its importance increased throughout the second half of 1943 and into the spring of 1944. Einem Stab der Résistance unterstanden zwanzig regionale, von Offizieren kommandierte Einheiten, die im Rhythmus von acht bis zehn Tagen ihren Standort wechselten. Polen), European Resistance Archive (ERA) – Videointerviews mit Widerstandskämpfern, Mouvement Ouvrier International(MOI) auch als militär. Allied strategy emphasized destroying German forces retreating towards the Rhine, but when the French Resistance under Henri Rol-Tanguy staged an uprising in the city, De Gaulle, upon receiving intelligence that the French Resistance had openly risen up against the German occupiers, and unwilling to allow his countrymen to be slaughtered against the entrenched and better-armed Germans, as had happened to the Polish Resistance in the Warsaw Uprising, petitioned Eisenhower for an immediate frontal assault. [188] Other Gaullists, those who could not join Britain (that is, the overwhelming majority of them), remained in the territories ruled by Vichy. [155] In the south of France, the Maquis had started to form an alternative government to Vichy, which still controlled the French civil service. [111] The SOE made contact with the maquis bands, but until early 1944 the SOE were unable to convince Whitehall that supplying the Resistance should be a priority.[134]. Some had been shopkeepers, artisans, young sons of wealthy parents. [70] The writer Simone de Beauvoir stated that it was not just Bonsergent that people mourned, but also the end of the illusion "as for the first time these correct people who occupied our country were officially telling us they had executed a Frenchman guilty of not bowing his head to them". Despite warnings from Laval, Sauckel took the view that he was ordered by Albert Speer to produce a quota of slaves for German industry, that the men joining the maquis were sabotaging German industry by fleeing to the countryside, and the solution was simply to kill them all. Sometimes contact with others in the Resistance led some operatives to adopt new political philosophies. Mai 2015 ins Panthéon umgebettet werden sollen, das ist die höchste posthume Auszeichnung des Staates. [7], Insgesamt kämpften mehrere tausend Reichsdeutsche in den Reihen der Résistance. [96], On 1 December 1942, a new resistance group, the ORA, Organisation de Résistance de l'Armée (Army Resistance Organization), was founded. These groups also included Pierre de Bénouville, who, together with Henri Frenay, led the Combat group, and Jacques Renouvin, who founded the group of resisters known as Liberté. Secretly and rapidly, as in the game of hunt-the-slipper, she was passed up till she stood at the head of the queue. Netwerk van de weerstand. [160] The SOE had informed the Resistance leaders to listen to the BBC's "personal messages" French language broadcasts on the 1st, 2nd, 15th and 16th of every month for the messages telling them when Overlord was due to start. Résistance wird auch als literarischer Begriff für eine Bewegung verwendet, die während der Vichy-Zeit illegal literarische Texte und Zeitschriften publizierte. Many of the networks recruited and controlled by the British and Americans were not perceived by the French as particularly interested in establishing a united or integrated Resistance operation, and the guerrilla groups controlled by the communists were only slightly more attracted by the idea of joining of a Resistance "umbrella" organisation. Anfänglich waren es neben anderen Emigranten viele ehemalige Interbrigadistas, mehrheitlich aus Spanien aber auch aus anderen Nationen. [265] However, as head of the Provisional Government of the French Republic, general de Gaulle, as a recognition of and a reward for their role in the Resistance, granted women the right to vote in 1945. ", Douzou, Laurent. I was not surprised that so many had enough. In July 1942, the Allies' failure to open a second front resulted in a wave of communist guerrilla attacks aimed at maximizing the number of Germans deployed in the West to give the USSR military relief.[308]. [196], On 21 August 1941, Colonel Pierre-Georges Fabien committed the first overt violent act of communist resistance by assassinating a German officer at the Barbès-Rochechouart station of the Paris Métro. A symbol of resistance, Kawa is a Kurdish hero famous for having led a revolt against a murderous king. [200] It was only when Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941 that French communists actively began to organize a resistance effort. [102], Ousby argued that, given the widespread belief that the Jews in France were mostly illegal immigrants from Eastern Europe who ought to be sent back to where they came from, it was remarkable that so many ordinary people were prepared to attempt to save them. [58] Although officially adhering to the Comintern instructions not to criticise Germany because of the Soviet non-aggression pact with Hitler, in October 1940 the French Communists founded the Organisation Spéciale [fr] (OS), composed with many veterans from the Spanish Civil War, which carried out a number of minor attacks before Hitler broke the treaty and invaded Russia. [120] The French called Sauckel "the slave trader". [130] To support themselves, the maquis took to theft with bank robbery and stealing from the Chantiers de Jeunesse (the Vichy youth movement) being especially favored means of obtaining money and supplies. [147] By February 1944, the maquisards numbered about 460 and had only light weapons, but received much media attention with the Free French issuing a press release in London saying "In Europe there are three countries resisting: Greece, Yugoslavia and the Haute-Savoie". At the village of Ascq, close to Lille 86 people were killed in the Ascq massacre on 1 April 1944 by the 12th Waffen SS Division "Hitlerjugend" ("Hitler Youth") in reprisal for resistance attacks on the railroads, the first of many villages martyrisés of 1944. [50] On 10 September 1940, the military governor of France, General Otto von Stülpnagel announced in a press statement that no mercy would be granted to those engaging in sabotage and all saboteurs would be shot. [179] On the afternoon of August 25, 1944 de Gaulle returned to Paris, a city he not set foot in since June 1940, to be greeted by vast cheering crowds as he walked down the Champs-Élysées. [175] The maquis lost about 650 killed during the fighting on the Vercors plateau and afterwards, the Germans shot about 200 maquisards, mostly wounded who had been unable to escape together with the medical team that had stayed behind to take care of them. [73] The Germans had powerful radio detection stations based in Paris, Brittany, Augsburg, and Nuremberg that could trace an unauthorized radio broadcast to within ten miles of its location. [181] In the middle of 1944, Chaban-Delmas had reported to de Gaulle that the FFI numbered 15,000 in Paris, but the time of the liberation of Paris on 25 August 1944, between 50,000–60,000 people were wearing FFI armbands. The same year, André Philip became commissaire national à l'Intérieur of the Free French (France libre), and Félix Gouin joined Charles de Gaulle in London to represent the socialists. Auf Seiten des französischen und belgischen Widerstands kämpften neben Franzosen und Belgiern auch viele Ausländer. Paris, France. The maquis were careful about concealing fires and could usually avoid aerial detection. During his trip to London in April 1942, the BCRA entrusted him with the creation of two new intelligence systems, Phalanx and Cohors-Asturies. ", Académie des Sciences Morales et Politiques, "Shahpur Bakhtiar: assassinated on order of the by Khomeini's Followers", "SECRET ARMY: WHY YOU'LL WANT TO JOIN THE RESISTANCE", "Psychological Effects of the War on French Children", The Kellner Affair: Matters of Life and Death, Secret agents sent to work with the French Resistance, Building the French Resistance Movement, 1940–1944. [142] In a typical ambush of the Das Reich division, Macpherson had a bomb planted on a bridge to knock out a half-truck while having the maquis fire on the SS; when a Panther tank came up to engage the maquis, one of the maquisards threw a "Gammon grenade", which knocked out the tank tracks. [141] As for the miliciens taken hostage, the maquisards knew if they were freed, they would reveal their hideout and their names as both the miliciens and maquisards had grown up in the same town and knew each other well (men on both sides had once been friends) while at the same time food was in short supply, making their hostages a drain on their food supplies; leading to the maquisards to hang their hostages (shooting them would make too much noise) out in the woods. [147] Anjot knew the odds against his maquis band were hopeless, but decided to take a stand to uphold French honor. Made to saw wood in the hot sun wearing a pullover and jacket. [273] Known mainly by the pseudonym Colonel Rémy, he returned to France in August 1940 not long after the surrender of France, where the following November he organised one of the most active and important Resistance networks of the BCRA, the Confrérie de Notre Dame (Brotherhood of Our Lady), which provided the Allies with photographs, maps and important information on German defences in general and the Atlantic Wall in particular. [11] Deutsche Résistancekämpfer sind in Frankreich geehrt und hoch angesehen, so wurde zum Beispiel Gerhard Leo zum Ritter der Ehrenlegion ernannt.[12][13]. Eventually, leaders of all of these separate and fragmented Resistance organizations were gathered and coordinated by Jean Moulin under the auspices of the National Council of Resistance (CNR), de Gaulle's formal link to the irregulars throughout occupied France. It is understandable that they should now want to beat them up". Various shots of a building on fire. [260] Intellectuals like Germaine Tillion and Suzanne Hiltermann-Souloumiac, highly aware of the signification of Nazism and collaboration, were among the few early resistants. [142] As more of the SS tanks began to shell the maquis, Macpherson ordered his men to retreat, content to know he had delayed the Das Reich division by several hours and that he would do the same again the next day, and the next. The French Résistance involved men and women representing a broad range of ages, social classes, occupations, religions and political affiliations. [164] On 9 June 1944 Eisenhower reached an agreement recognizing the FFI was part of the Allied order of battle and that Koenig was to operate under his command. [8] Although the amalgamation of the FFI was, in some cases, fraught with political difficulties, it was ultimately successful, and it allowed France to rebuild the fourth-largest army in the European theatre (1.2 million men) by VE Day in May 1945. [8] Sie setzten sich hauptsächlich aus Emigranten, welche nach der Machtergreifung der Nationalsozialisten nach 1933 Deutschland verließen, ehemaligen Spanienkämpfern, aber auch einigen Wissenschaftlern, Diplomaten und Wirtschaftsspezialisten zusammen, die sich dem französischen und belgischen Widerstand anschlossen. [91] The lab also produced cyanide capsules to allow the fighters to evade torture if arrested. [181] Miliciens were usually shot without the bother of a trial, and at least 10,000 miliciens were shot in 1944. ), Vorlage:Webachiv/IABot/ There was a majority from the SFIO in Libération-Nord, one of the eight great networks to make up the National Council of the Resistance, and in the Brutus network. The French Resistance ( French: La Résistance) was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War. By 1942, the Paris Kommandantur was receiving an average of 1,500 corbeaux (poison pen letters)[clarification needed] a day, which kept the occupation authorities informed about what was happening in France. Die Französische Post gab zwischen 1957 und 1961 eine Briefmarkenserie von 23 Marken mit dem Motto Héros de la résistance („Helden der Résistance“) heraus. [115] Those who lived in the macchia of Corsica were usually bandits, and those men fleeing to the countryside chose the term maquis as a more romantic and defiant term than réfractaire. From shop TeeTimeUS. Jewish resisters included Imre Epstein in the Hungarian group at Toulouse; György Vadnai (future Lausanne rabbi) at Lyon; the writer Emil Szittya at Limoges. [57] About 60,000 Spanish Republican emigres fought in the Resistance. [117] One of every two French people called to serve in the STO failed to do so. [83] The brochure was disguised as informational material for fascistic Frenchmen who had volunteered for the Legion of French Volunteers Against Bolshevism on the Eastern Front;[83] it took the occupation authorities some time to realize that the manual was a Communist publication meant to train the FTP for actions against them. As the snipers continued to cut down his men while he could hear the sound of panzers coming up in the distance, Hue ordered his men to retreat into the woods under the cover of darkness while using his radio to call in a RAF airstrike that disorganised the Germans enough to make escape possible. [139] In the Auxois region, the Maquis Bernard had created its system of taxation with people being taxed on the basis of their willingness to collaborate with the authorities or support the resistance. [36] The résistant Henri Frenay wrote seeing the tri-color flag disappear from Paris with the swastika flag flying in its place and German soldiers standing guard in front of buildings that once housed the institutions of the republic gave him "un sentiment de viol" ("a feeling of rape"). Gottfried Hamacher. Both his poor eyes had been closed into two purple and yellow bruises". He should never live, eat, sleep except surrounded by look-outs. [138] The Communists agreed to unity largely in the belief that they would obtain more supplies from Britain, and in practice the FTP continued to work independently. They will be absolutely cut off from their families for the duration; the enemy does not apply the rules of war to them; they cannot be assured any pay; every effort will be made to help their families, but it is impossible to give any guarantee in this manner; all correspondence is forbidden. [232], The Jewish youth movement Eclaireuses et Eclaireurs israélites de France (EEIF), equivalent to Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts in other countries, had, during the early years of the occupation, shown support for the Vichy regime's traditional values,[233] until it was banned in 1943, after which its older members soon formed armed resistance units. [126] The most important maquis rule was the so-called "24-hour rule", under which a captured maquisard had to hold out under torture for 24 hours to give time for his comrades to escape. [89] Numerous resistance groups were destroyed by such double agents, and the SOE often charged that the poor security arrangements of the French resistance groups left them open to being destroyed by one double agent. [46] From May 1941, Freney founded Combat, one of the first Resistance groups. [304] Others were deported, though, many of which died in concentration camps. A maquisard should be mobile. The actions of the Resistance stood in marked contrast to the collaboration of the French regime based at Vichy. The French Resistance played a significant role in facilitating the Allies' rapid advance through France following the invasion of Normandy on 6 June 1944, and the lesser-known invasion of Provence on 15 August, by providing military intelligence on the German defenses known as the Atlantic Wall and on Wehrmacht deployments and orders of battle. Juni 1944 das gesamte Dorf, exekutierte die Männer und sperrte Frauen und Kinder in die Kirche, die dann angezündet wurde. Durch glückliche Umstände und Fürsprachen hatte er als Strafe „nur“ einen mehrtägigen Arrest zu verbüßen. [297] In the southern zone, François de Menthon's newspaper Liberté merged with Henri Frenay's Vérité to form Combat in December 1941, which grew to a circulation of 200,000 by 1944. [86] De Gaulle named Moulin his representative in France, and ordered him to return and unify all Resistance groups and have them recognize the authority of de Gaulle's Free French National Committee in London, which few resistance groups did at the time. [314][163] Their paralysis of German infrastructure is widely thought to have been very effective. [29][30], In early 1943, the Vichy authorities created a paramilitary group, the Milice (militia), to combat the Resistance. By February 1944, supply drops were up by 173%. In September 1940, the poet Robert Desnos published an article titled "J'irai le dire à la Kommandantur" in the underground newspaper Aujourd'hui appealing to ordinary French people to stop denouncing each other to the Germans. In the northern zone, Pantagruel, the newspaper of Franc-Tireur, had a circulation of 10,000 by June 1941 but was quickly replaced by Libération-Nord which attained a circulation of 50,000, and by January 1944 Défense de la France was distributing 450,000 copies. Mithilfe seiner Sprachkenntnisse und der detaillierten Informationen über ihren Ehemann aus Berlin schwanden letztlich die Zweifel der Ehefrau und Horst Behrendt erhielt von mehreren herbeigerufenen Maquis-Angehörigen eine Adresse einer weiteren Widerstandsgruppe in Tours. [321] Estimates of the casualties among the Resistance are made harder by the dispersion of movements at least until D-Day, but credible estimates start from 8,000 dead in action, 25,000 shot and several tens of thousands deported. [42] In the beginning, resistance was limited to activities such as severing phone lines, vandalizing posters and slashing tyres on German vehicles. [240], The Armenian community of France played an active role in the Resistance. [43] Another form of resistance was underground newspapers like Musée de l'Homme (Museum of Mankind) which circulated clandestinely. [100] On the morning of 16 July 1942, the grande rafle began with 9,000 French policemen rounding up the Jews of Paris, leading to some 12,762 Jewish men, women and children being arrested and brought to the Val d'Hiv sports stadium, from where they were sent to the Drancy camp and finally Auschwitz. [180], As various cities, towns and villages were liberated in France, the Resistance was usually the most organized force that took over. [106] As she recalled: "Immediately, they handcuffed me and took me to be interrogated. [150] In general, American weaponry was preferred to British weaponry, but the British-built Bren gun emerged as one of the favorite weapons of the resistance. Seit den 1960er Jahren ist Oradour-sur-Glane Gedenkstätte für den französischen Widerstand. Some prominent examples are Daniel Cordier, who became Jean Moulin's secretary, and Colonel Rémy, who founded the Confrérie Notre-Dame. [105] The majority of those shot were communists or relatives of communists, along with the father and father-in-law of Pierre Georges and the brother of the communist leader Maurice Thorez. von Georges Bouquie (franz. [71], As in World War I and the war of 1870–1871, the Germans argued that those engaging in resistance were "bandits" and "terrorists", maintaining that all Francs-tireurs were engaging in illegal warfare and therefore had no rights. In the 19th century, the Les emblèmes de la France was included among the iconographical attributes of Joan of Arc, who was from Lorraine. [145] The 80 year-old Basch was a French Jew, a former president of the League for the Rights of Men and had been a prominent dreyfusard during the Dreyfus affair, marking him out as an enemy of the "New Order in Europe" by his very existence, though the elderly pacifist Basch was not actually involved in the resistance. The Germans managed to repair the tracks quickly in agricultural areas with level ground, since the salvage of some matériel was a relatively easy proposition in such terrain. [48] Though the BCRA was based in an office in Duke Street in London, its relations with the SOE were often strained, as de Gaulle made no secret of his dislike of British support for the resistance groups, which he saw as British meddling in France's domestic affairs. Although vanquished and Romanized, the Gauls are seen as the moral victors in the collective memory of France, and are now a national symbol. Der Anlass waren Berichte von einem linken Sozialdemokraten, dessen Bruder von der Gestapo schwer misshandelt worden war und der Kontakt zur Widerstandskämpferin Thea Saefkow. [73] Afterwards, the Germans would send a van with a radio detection equipment to find the radio operator,[95] so radio operators in the Resistance were advised not to broadcast from the same location for long. "[71] Pastor Marc Boegner, president of the National Protestant Federation, denounced the rafles in a sermon in September 1942, asking Calvinists to hide Jews. [315] British Prime Minister Winston Churchill later wrote in his memoirs praising the role the Resistance played in the liberation of Brittany, "The French Resistance Movement, which here numbered 30,000 men, played a notable part, and the peninsula was quickly overrun."[316]. "[102] When taken with the other Jews to the Place Voltaire, one woman was heard to shout "Well done! 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