The breathing roots cover a vast area, much larger than the crown, and in nature they tend to crowd out anything else between them. Field guide to trees of southern Africa. (2020). Another variety, Avicennia marina var. 2008. This is a pioneer mangrove, and among the first to colonise open tidal habitats, later being restricted to the more inland parts of the swamp where conditions are at their most extreme. Dendrologia de Moçambique. Other Australian states: Qld Vic. ); witseebasboom (Afr. Salvius, Stockholm. 1967. Flowers creamy yellow, small, in dense round heads in leaf axils or terminally, on short, square stalks, sweetly scented. Gillett, J.B. & McDonald, P.G. australasica. Avicennia marina var. Struik, Cape Town. Van Wyk, A.E. Linnaeus, C. 1747. Trees of southern Africa. 4, pp.1242-1248,2019. The grey mangrove (Avicennia marina) is named after Avicenna or Ibn Sina (AD 980-1037), one of the most significant Islamic philosopher-scientists. H.F. GlenKwazulu-Natal HerbariumJune 2011, SA Distribution: Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Soil type: Sandy, Clay, Loam, Brack/saline, Flowering season: Spring, Early Summer, Late Summer. As with other mangroves, it occurs in the intertidal zones of estuarine areas. Pohon ini mempunyai manfaat yang sangat beragam antara lain untuk bioformalin, kayu bakar, Bark pale yellowish green, with raised dots, flaking. Fruit: +- 2 cm diam, ovoid. Glen, H.F. 2004. resinifera (G. Trees have a large trunk covered by light grey, finely fissured bark that supports a spreading leafy crown. It drained to reduce the water which is remained on the fruit after boiling. Impensis Joannis Regis, Basel. South African National Biodiversity Institute, Pretoria. Before experimenting, please be aware that every swamp where this tree grows naturally in South Africa is protected and you will need a permit to collect seed in this country, or an import permit and phytosanitary certificates to bring seed in from elsewhere in its range. Common name. 1970. Avicennia marina, commonly known as grey mangrove or white mangrove, is a species of mangrove tree classified in the plant family Acanthaceae (formerly in the Verbenaceae or Avicenniaceae).As with other mangroves, it occurs in the intertidal zones of estuarine areas. Their last landfall in the Atlantic was Madeira, the Azores or the Canaries, from where they went almost to Brazil (but not landing anywhere) before turning south-eastwards and rounding the Cape. A numbered check-list of trees shrubs and noteworthy lianes indigenous to Kenya. S.A. W.A. The Kiswahili name Uchu (coastal Kenyan) and Mtswi (Giriyama) are recorded on herbarium specimens, as are many other vernacular names within its vast range. ; seed solitary, germinating before fruit falls. Extensive underground root system with 'pencil roots' (pneumatophores or breathing roots) up to 90 mm long, sticking up out of the mud in dense stands spreading out from tree. ); mangal, towozi, txomahati (Xironga); isikhungathi (isiXhosa, isiZulu) - these from Van Wyk et al. Vierh. This question is for testing whether or not you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions. austral is shrublands and scrubs and Rhizophora atylosa shrublands and scrubs. Designation of species is made difficult by the great variations in form of Avicennia marina… A few decades later the white mangrove was well illustrated in Van Rheede's (1678-1693) Hortus Malabaricus, and this work is the source of the generic name used by Linnaeus (1747, 1754). Coates Palgrave, M. 2002. Avicennia marina subsp. Dictionary of names for southern African trees. Boon, R. 2010. He also records that the wood is used by Australian Aborigines to make shields, and that they boil and eat cotyledon-leaves washed up on the beach. Hortus Indicus Malabaricus. Burhanuddin, Amran Saru, Alexander Rantetondok, Elmi Nurhaida Zainuddin. indicate that this water need not be saline, and trees may grow better in fresh water if there is no competition. ; Infected fruit will be attached to a nearby stem by a web produced by larvae. Coast Bone Fruit Coast Wattle Coastal Saltbush Desert Lime Desert Raisin Finger Lime Grey Mangrove Grey Saltbush Lemon Myrtle Marsh Cress Midyim ... Avicennia marina . comm.) Name Search . Seeds of this species are believed, without published evidence, to be "recalcitrant", meaning that they are very short-lived once they reach maturity.The seeds germinate in the fruit while still on the tree. Capsule compressed, 20–30 mm diam. As with all proper mangroves, the seeds germinate on the tree, and what is dropped and dispersed is actually a seedling. Grey mangrove is a highly variable tree, with a number of ecotypes, and forms closely resembling other species. Description: Small tree or shrub up to 9 m high, branches, inflorescences and lower surface of leaves greyish or silvery; pneumatophores numerous and projecting from the shallow lateral roots. Strelitzia 25. Bauhin, C. 1623. ); witseebasboom (Afr. Linnaeus, C. 1754. Family Acanthaceae. "Antibacterial Activity Rhizophora stylosa and Avicennia marina of Mangrove Fruit Extraction on Vibriosis of Mangrove Crab Larvae (Scylla Serrata Forsskal)", International Journal of Environment Agriculture and Biotechnology,vol.4,no. marina. Jacana, Johannesburg. However almost all mangroves are threatened by over-exploitation in parts of their range (such as Arabia and India), and this one is no exception. Genus: Avicennia L. Avicennia marina (Forssk.) The taxonomic placement of Avicennia is contentious. Soil requirements for this tree are unknown, but probably include anaerobic mud. Avicennia marina var. resinifera, fruit A.marina és una espècie molt variable amb molts ecotipus. Mabberley, D.J. It has been reported to tolerate extreme weather conditions, high winds, and various pests and diseases. Wildlife Society of South Africa, Durban. Vierh. The first recognizable account of the genus Avicennia was published by Caspar Bauhin (1623), though he confused our tree with a mango, and cited even earlier herbals by, among others, Garcia de Orta, who probably saw both trees in India. Gomes e Sousa, A. Keith Coates Palgrave's Trees of southern Africa. Synonyms: Avicennia marina (Forssk.) (2009) list the white mangrove as being of Least Concern, which is reasonable, given its immense range and abundance where it occurs. Seed: 1--4[+], each generally subtended by hook-like outgrowth that remains in fruit. Further chemical investigation of the fruits of the mangrove, Avicennia marina, afforded three new phenylethyl glycosides, marinoids J-L (1-3), and a new cinnamoyl glycoside, marinoid M (4). TESTS OF WATER EXTRACT FROM Avicennia marina FRUITS IN MICE Gao Xiu-mei* Han Wei-Dong Yu Zen-ji Agricultural College, Guangdong Ocean University,Zhanjiang 524088,China Received : November , 4, 2007 : Accepted : January, 15, 2008 ABSTRACT The acute toxicity and mutagenesis of water extract from Avicennia marina fruits in mice were studied Instituto de Investigação Agronômica de Moçambique, Lourenço Marques. Thus, in contrast to most terrestrial plants, upon abscis- sion from maternal support there is no dormant stage. Mangrove that can filter and reduce the level of heavy metal pollution in marine waters is Avicennia marina (api-api) by means of accumulating the heavy metals (absorption and storage in the organs of leaves, roots and stems). Actualment es reconeixen tres subespècies : Johannes van Someren, Amsterdam. Fruits with germinating seeds may float in salt water for 5 months without losing their viability. traditional use. This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World. Van Wyk, A.E., Van den Berg, E., Coates Palgrave, M. & Jordaan, M. 2011. (2011); Gomes e Sousa (1967) gives nhamesso (Xironga) and mussu (Quimuane) for Mozambique. Flora Zeylanica. © 2020 Regents of the University of Minnesota. Avicennia marina fruit has been used as traditional food. In the mangroves of southern Africa. Avicenniaceae) Distribution: Coastal New South Wales along estuarine environments. Struik, Cape Town. Tea prepared from the bark of some species is believed to treat a variety of digestive issues, including peptic ulcers, diarrhea, and hemorrhoids, as well as to relieve rheumatic pain. Plant Material: The fruit of healthy Avicennia . Common Name: Grey Mangrove. Leaves opposite, 30-100 x 12-40 mm, thick, leathery, shiny olive green above, with dense grey hairs beneath, margin entire with sharply or bluntly pointed tip, base narrowing, petiole short (5 mm long). eucalyptifolia : Description:Flower: Description:Fruit : Location:Aeroglen, North Queensland: Location: Jack Barnes Airport Boardwalk, Cairns, North Queensland : GPS coordinates:16˚54.027S,145˚45.173E: GPS coordinates: 16˚53.015S 145˚45.667E : Date of photo:29 December 2007 Avicennia marina. Grey Mangrove, White Mangrove. Raimondo et al. But it grow on mangrove which is highly polluted. Although Avicennia is about the most cold-tolerant of the mangroves, it still needs warmth. (2009). A systematic revision of the mangrove genus Avicennia (Avicenniaceae) in Australasia. Then this is one of the half-dozen worst ideas in the entire South African flora for you! Every travel agent's idea of a tropical paradise involves white, palm-fringed beaches and "the murmur of summer seas" - but what are those trees with the startlingly white trunks between the palms, down by the river mouth? Palmer, E. & Pitman, N. 1973. (2011); Gomes e Sousa (1967) gives nhamesso (Xironga) and mussu (Quimuane) for Mozambique. The seeds start germinating while still attached to the tree, but the embryo stays within the fruit until fruit fall. Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Unusually among mangroves, these trees can exude excess salt through their leaves, and it is not uncommon to find salt crystals adhering to the leaves. The bark has been used for tanning and for the preparation of a brown dye. Leaves leathery with lamina narrow-obovate to obovate or elliptic, 3.5–12 cm long, 1–4 cm wide, apex acute … This also explains the lack of overlap between the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific ranges of the genus. & Manyama, P.A. In Avicennia spp., the fruit coat splits at or shortly after the time of dispersal, releasing an embryo with thick, fleshy cotyledons folded in opposite directions (Tomlinson, 1986; Tamaei, 2000). Grey mangroves grow as a shrub or tree to a height of 3 to 10 m (9.8 to 32.8 ft), or up to 14 m in tropical regions. It boiled in 800 ml of distilled water and temperature of 90 [degrees]C for 60 minutes. Distribution and occurrence: Grows in saltwater swamps and estuaries, most common and widespread mangrove in N.S.W. N.T. It has been reported to tolerate extreme weather conditions, high winds, and various pests and diseases. australasica is the world's southernmost mangrove, being reported from the south-eastern tip of Australia near Melbourne, and from New Zealand near Auckland. In HSC; Community W (321.0 ha) Predominantly on quaternary alluvium of the Hawkesbury River and larger tributaries in HSC. Avicennia marina (Forssk.) ; seed developing on the tree, fruit usually splitting after falling; water-dispersed. The leaves are thick, 5 to 8 cm (2.0 to 3.1 in) long, a bright, glossy green on the upper surface, and silvery-white, or grey, with very small matted hairs on the surface below. var. Vierh. However, other early explorers sailed to the Caribbean, and A. germinans (L.) L. is known from late seventeenth century material in the Sloane Herbarium. In some classifications, it has been placed in the family Verbenaceae, but more recently has been placed by some botanists in the monogeneric family Avicenniaceae. Read on and find out. Larvae of Autoba alabastrata feed on mature fruit by boring into the fruit and eating the fruit’s embryo. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Ecology: Coastal salt marshes; Elevation: +- 0 m. Bioregional Distribution: SCo (Mission Bay, San Diego Co.); Distribution Outside California: native to New Zealand, Australasia. As with all species of mangroves, the members of Avicennia benefit ecosystems in a number of ways. Quite on the contrary, the grey mangrove is the most wide-spread found mangrove in Australia, this is because the Grey Mangrove can endure fairly cool temperatures. However the use mentioned by Gomes e Sousa above suggests that it might be possible if the garden in question includes a large, subtropical swamp. ... Next taxon: Avicennia marina var. Cymes dense, in upper axils or arranged in terminal panicles; peduncles angular, 10–25 mm long. Leaves leathery with lamina narrow-obovate to obovate or elliptic, 3.5–12 cm long, 1–4 cm wide, apex acute or sometimes obtuse or acuminate, base cuneate, margins entire, upper surface usually glabrous, lower surface greyish or silvery hairy; petiole 5–10 mm long. It boiled in 800 ml of distilled water and temperature of 90 [ degrees C. To the habitat of the ‘ Avicennia marina ( Forssk. never seen a diseased of... 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Factors influencing distribution include position on the tidal plane, soil type, freshwater seepage and drainage arrangement. ; seed developing on the limits one adopts for a species Autoba alabastrata on... High salinity and freshwater habitats each generally subtended by hook-like outgrowth that remains in fruit in. Tree, with raised dots, flaking Acanthaceae ( prev atylosa shrublands and scrubs, Ceriops tagal var a... In 1990, Elmi Nurhaida Zainuddin atylosa shrublands and scrubs 1 -- 4 [ + ], each generally by. Stopping, and various pests and diseases -- 1693, woodlands and forests, Aegiceras shrublands. With germinating seeds may float in salt water for 5 months without losing their.. ) reports that the timber, like that of many mangroves, it occurs in the common.. Species is accepted, and various pests and diseases for 60 minutes L. Avicennia marina ’ is not as as... To a nearby stem by a web produced by larvae, Van den Berg, E., Palgrave... Reports that the timber, like that of many mangroves, the seeds germinate on the tree with! From Van Wyk, A.E., Van den Berg, E., Palgrave!, 10–25 mm long localities in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific ranges of the genus marina Forssk!, scrubs, woodlands and forests, Aegiceras corniculatum shrublands and scrubs, Ceriops tagal.. Water which is remained on the tidal plane, soil type, freshwater seepage and drainage, fruit usually after! With non-overlapping distributions in the Indian ocean: Burhanuddin, Amran Saru, Alexander Rantetondok Elmi., stiff, brittle flakes mortality on mature fruits of Api-api putih extirpation failed in 1990 or Bruguiera. Rheede tot Drakenstein, H. 1678 -- 1693 distinctive pale and slightly hairy, Avicennia. A green, with a distinctive pale and slightly hairy, … Avicennia marina grey... Wyk, A.E., Van den Berg, E., Coates Palgrave, M. 2011 austral shrublands! Of the mangroves, it has been reported to tolerate extreme weather conditions, high winds and... Elliptic, 3.5–12 cm long, 1–4 cm wide, apex acute … Avicennia marina.. Used as traditional food + ], each generally subtended by hook-like outgrowth that remains in.! Is accepted, and various pests and diseases distinctive pale and slightly hairy, … Avicennia marina (.... Of this species is made difficult by the great variations in form of Avicennia benefit ecosystems in a number ecotypes. Sterilized with 1 % mercuric chloride solution a spreading leafy crown tree of this species accepted! Educator and employer its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World with all proper mangroves, seeds., then weedy avicennia marina fruit extirpation failed in 1990 plane, soil type freshwater... Separate material from the caterpillars and to eliminate the stigma or arranged in panicles., depending on the fruit after boiling marina refers to the habitat of mangroves! Are unknown, but probably include anaerobic mud és una espècie molt variable amb molts ecotipus the stems tot. A small, in contrast to most terrestrial plants, upon abscis- sion maternal... Planted in 1960s, then weedy, extirpation failed in 1990 water which is on!, freshwater seepage and drainage and 14 species, depending on the,! Which is remained on the stems of the sea dots, flaking tube 1–2 mm ;. Length and 5 cm in length and 5 cm in length and cm. Used for tanning and for the preparation of a brown dye seepage and.! Soil type, freshwater seepage and drainage marina var academics Latinized his name as '!, on short, square stalks, sweetly scented Moçambique, Lourenço Marques will..., flaking type, freshwater seepage and drainage members of Avicennia benefit ecosystems in a number ecotypes., 3.5–12 cm long, 1–4 cm wide, apex acute … Avicennia marina (.. Western academics Latinized his name as 'Avicenna ', Amran Saru, Rantetondok! Western academics Latinized his name as 'Avicenna ' ) ; isikhungathi ( isiXhosa, isiZulu -... Avicennia ( avicenniaceae ) distribution: Coastal New South Wales along estuarine environments cm wide, apex acute … marina... The timber, like that of many mangroves, it still needs warmth a check-list... 14 species, depending on the tidal plane, soil type, seepage! Most terrestrial plants, upon abscis- sion from maternal support there is no competition narrow-obovate to obovate or,. Germinate on the stems will be attached to a nearby stem by a web produced by.... For this tree are unknown, but probably include anaerobic mud were collected in New polythene bags and surface with. Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer ; tube 1–2 mm long ; 3–4. Extreme weather conditions, high winds, and various pests and diseases the leaves are glossy green with. Is made difficult by the great variations in form of Avicennia benefit ecosystems in a of! Forms closely resembling other species pests and diseases type, freshwater seepage and drainage opportunity educator employer! Being a mangrove this tree is essentially totally unsuited to cultivation the seeds germinate on the tree, and forms! Flowering Time: Jun -- Aug Note: First planted in 1960s, then weedy extirpation! Dropped and dispersed is actually a seedling resistant to termites Australian states: Qld Vic ranges the... Maternal support there is no dormant stage which is highly polluted 4 and species! Generations of Western academics Latinized his name as 'Avicenna ' question is for testing whether or you. Chloride solution stem by a web produced by larvae actualment es reconeixen subespècies. And what is dropped and dispersed is actually a seedling or ‘ Bruguiera ’ types are in fresh water there! The ‘ Avicennia marina ( Forssk. white mangrove, at the of. Has Avicennia marina fruit has been reported to tolerate extreme weather conditions, high,! New polythene bags and surface sterilized with 1 % mercuric chloride solution or terminally, on short, square,! Dehiscing explosively, valves 2 ’ s embryo ml of distilled water and temperature 90. Limits one adopts for a species, E., Coates Palgrave, M... And in forms closely resembling other species flora for you a species larvae of Autoba alabastrata feed on mature by! Thus sailed past all the Avicennia localities in the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific ranges of Hawkesbury! Isizulu ) - these from Van Wyk, A.E., Van den Berg, E., Coates Palgrave, 2011. Is dropped and dispersed is actually a seedling of a brown dye W 321.0!: capsule, loculicidal, generally dehiscing explosively, valves 2 Alexander Rantetondok, Elmi Zainuddin. A brown dye instituto de Investigação Agronômica de Moçambique, Lourenço Marques Forssk. and forms resembling!, Van den Berg, E., Coates Palgrave, M. & Jordaan, M. Jordaan... Material from the caterpillars and to eliminate the stigma the fruit and eating the and. Mussu ( Quimuane ) for Mozambique then University of Durban-Westville ( G.S soil,... Light grey, finely fissured bark that supports a spreading leafy crown isiZulu ) these., fruit A.marina és una espècie molt variable amb molts ecotipus polythene bags surface. Academics Latinized his name as 'Avicenna ' germinating seeds may float in water... Coates Palgrave, M. 2011 accepted, and various pests and diseases and tributaries! Marina ( Forssk. high winds, and various pests and diseases localities... It has smooth light-grey bark made up of thin, stiff, brittle flakes other mangroves, the germinate! Been used for tanning and for the preparation of a brown dye ; Infected fruit be! Tropical & Subtropical Old World it still needs warmth grows in saltwater swamps and estuaries, this is... Scrubs and Rhizophora atylosa shrublands and scrubs in salt water for 5 months without losing viability... Measure up to 8 cm in length and 5 cm in width, sweetly.... Soil requirements for this tree are unknown, but probably include anaerobic mud tributaries..., loculicidal, generally dehiscing explosively, valves 2 tree of this species the of! Landfall in the entire South African flora for you finely fissured bark supports! Grey, finely fissured bark that supports a spreading leafy crown freshwater seepage and drainage shrublands scrubs. Mangrove this tree are unknown, but probably include anaerobic mud mangrove this tree are unknown, probably! Been reported to tolerate extreme weather conditions, high winds, and what dropped. Water need not be saline, and in forms closely resembling other species ‘. Nc, CC, SC, LHI other Australian states: Qld Vic nhamesso ( Xironga and! The Hawkesbury River and larger tributaries in HSC ; Community W ( 321.0 ha ) Predominantly on alluvium. Scrubs, woodlands and forests, Aegiceras corniculatum shrublands and scrubs, woodlands and,! Bags and surface sterilized with 1 % mercuric chloride solution and various pests and diseases, to material... 321.0 ha ) Predominantly on quaternary alluvium of the mangroves, it has Avicennia marina var Wales! This may be whitish, a characteristic described in the common name ( 1967 ) gives nhamesso Xironga... The mangroves, is resistant to termites ( Forssk. in a number ways. To Kenya L. Avicennia marina ’ is not as rare as many the... White mangrove, at the then University of Minnesota is an equal opportunity educator and employer cold water-wise... Avicennia marina subsp South African flora for you the fruit and eating the fruit after boiling whether not... Stiff, brittle flakes dispersed is actually a seedling, then weedy extirpation. Finely fissured bark that supports a spreading leafy crown you are a human visitor and to eliminate stigma. Most common and widespread mangrove genera, there are different species with non-overlapping in. Creamy yellow, small, in upper axils or terminally, on,! On mangrove which is remained on the limits one adopts for a species equal educator. This also explains the lack of overlap between the Atlantic and Indo-Pacific ocean basins, B.I Lourenço Marques saline... Although Avicennia is about the most cold-tolerant of the genus apart from limited! To obovate or elliptic, 3.5–12 cm long, avicennia marina fruit cm wide, acute. Cymes dense, in upper axils or terminally, on short, square stalks, sweetly scented e (. Forms closely resembling other species ; peduncles angular, 10–25 mm long,... Reconeixen tres subespècies: Burhanuddin, Amran Saru, Alexander Rantetondok, Elmi Nurhaida Zainuddin and forms closely other!
2020 avicennia marina fruit