Maize Lethal Necrosis Developing a comprehensive Response In September 2011, reports came of a devastating new maize disease in the Southern Rift Valley of Kenya. It is caused by two types of viruses which together kill the plant. Share and download educational presentations online. Maize Lethal Necrosis disease (MLND) is a key regional and transboundary challenge that continues to bring havoc to farmers’ maize grain harvest and threatens food security in the eastern African region. The most commons are the potyvirus Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV), Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus or the tritimovirus Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV). P. K. Leley, and In these regions, maize is grown continuously throughout the year, with the main planting season starting in November. 64:944, 1980. Introduction In Kenya, food security is synonymous with maize availability since it is a key staple food to over 90% of her population with about 42 dietary energy intakes (Keya and Rubaihayo, 2013). Consequently, information regarding its prevalence, yield loss, applicable mitigation measures and socio-economic effects is still scanty, hence this study. Maize streak virus was present, but incidence was low (data not shown). Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) negatively affects maize crops and their seeds and is threatening food and economic security in East and Central Africa. MLN is a disease caused by the synergistic combination of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus (MCMV) and any from the potyvirus family, in this case Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV). The project, coordinated by CIMMYT, will establish a community of practice among national plant protection organizations in eastern Africa for implementing harmonized MLN diagnostic protocols for detecting MLN-causing viruses and enable commercial seed companies to implement necessary standard operational procedures to produce MLN-free clean seed at various points along the maize seed value chain. Maize lethal necrosis disease Multiple virus infections Once the disease enters a field there is little that can be done to prevent total loss of the crop. The spread of Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) in the maize growing regions of Eastern Africa has intensified since the first outbreak was reported in September 2011 in Kenya. However, the observed symptoms were more severe than commonly associated with MCMV, suggesting the presence of maize lethal necrosis (MLN), a disease that results from maize infection with both MCMV and a potyvirus (4). Seed Inspectors can check for Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) in seed farms. January 29, 2013. Photo: Eric Boa, CABI, CC BY 4.0 Photo: Eric Boa, CABI, CC BY 4.0 . It looks like your browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Its presence has been confirmed in Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of Congo, Uganda and Ethiopia. A. W. Wangai, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. The symptoms were described as mottling of the leaves, small cobs with few grains, and necrosis of young leaves leading to “dead heart” and eventually plant death. 11:248, 1992. (en) Maize lethal necrosis disease - Datasheet, CAB International. Called maize lethal necrosis (MLN; or corn lethal necrosis, CLN), it can devastate maize crops. CIMMYT 1,457 views. Diffusion: The disease devastates corn fields in east Africa. D. Jeffers, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), © 2012 The American Phytopathological Society, The American Phytopathological Society (APS), APS Education Center Online Teaching Portal, Internship, REU, REEU & Work Experience Opportunities, http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-06-12-0576-PDN. Infected plants were distributed throughout affected fields, with heavier infection along field edges. This resembles maize streak virus disease but MLND stripes are wider. Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) is a serious threat to maize production where it occurs. rop losses of up to 100% were reported in … Maize plants are susceptible to MLN at all stages in . The disease was first reported in the Southern Rift Valley region of Kenya in 2011 [ 3 ] and Mwanza and Arusha regions in Tanzania in 2012 [ 4 ]. Maize lethal necrosis disease kills the leaves of plants. 1998; 242 (1):28–38. The disease later spread to the Narok South and North and Naivasha Districts. Lethal Viral Necrosis of Floratam St. Augustinegrass (sometimes called LVN, Sugarcane Mosaic Virus or SCMV) was first verified in Palm Beach County, Florida via laboratory analysis in November 2014, although it was likely here earlier. The maize lethal necrosis (MLN) screening facility at the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) Naivasha in Kenya. The study used spatial regression analysis to model MLN severity on sampled farm fields in Bomet County, Kenya. This disease has devastated maize crops in the United States (US), Mexico, and East Africa. When maize lethal necrosis (MLN) was first reported in Bomet... CIMMYT, Maize, maize lethal necrosis… (Photo: George Mahuku/CIMMYT) This announcement by Dr. L. M. Suresh was originally published on the Maize Lethal Necrosi s Information Portal of the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). In September 2011, a disease outbreak in Kenya was positively identified as Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND). Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) is a devastating viral disease of maize caused by double infection with Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and any one of the Potyviridae family members. their growth, from seedling to maturity. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) is the latest emerging disease of maize in Sub-saharan Africa. The disease has since been confirmed in Rwanda and the Democratic Republic of Congo, and similar symptoms have been reported in Tanzania, Uganda, South Sudan, and Ethiopia. The conference was jointly organized by CIMMYT and AGRA in collaboration with the Kenya Agriculture and Livestock Research Organization. Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease in East Africa - Duration: 8:51. Box 57811-00200, Nairobi, Kenya; Maize lethal necrosis disease (MLND) is a deadly disease of maize. MLN is a serious threat to farmers in the affected areas, who are experiencing extensive to complete crop loss. Maize streak virus was present, but incidence was low (data not shown). The maize lethal necrosis (MLN) screening facility at the Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI) Naivasha in Kenya. (2) Delgadillo Sanchez et al. Maize lethal necrosis was first identified in the USA in 1976 ( Niblett and Caflin, 1978 ). The spread of Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) in the maize growing regions of Eastern Africa has intensified since the first outbreak was reported in September 2011 in Kenya. SCMV primers (8679F: 5′-GCAATGTCGAAGAAAATGCG) and 9595R: 5′-GTCTCTCACCAAGAGACTCGCAGC) amplified the expected 900-bp product from four leaf samples. The disease is caused by the combination of Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and a virus belonging to the potyviridae family, commonly Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV). Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms (Photo 1a and Photo 1b) is caused by the synergistic co-infection of maize with maize chlorotic mottle virus symptoms (Photo 2) and any virus from the family Potyviridae, these include wheat streak mosaic virus, maize dwarf mosaic virus symptoms or sugarcane mosaic virus symptoms (formerly maize dwarf mosaic virus-B) (Photo 3). Prevention of spread of Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus through seed from the endemic to non-endemic areas/countries in sub-Saharan Africa. Sally Kosgei eulogises former president Daniel Arap Moi - Duration: 20:39. (en) Data Sheet on Maize Lethal Necrosis (MLN) Disease, Leibniz Institut DSMZ GmbH. References: (1) P. G. S. Chang et al. Maize lethal necrosis (MLN), a complex viral disease, emerged as a serious threat to maize production and the livelihoods of smallholders in eastern Africa since 2011, primarily due to the introduction of maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV). MAIZE Management Committee and Independent Steering Committee Meeting Minutes; Documents – Gender in Maize ... International coalition keeps devastating maize disease at bay, but risks still linger. J. Virol. The disease is difficult to control for two reasons: It is caused by a combination of two viruses that are difficult to … G. Mahuku, International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT); 171:345, 2011. Maize lethal necrosis disease symptoms (Photo la and Photo 1b) is caused by the synergistic co-infection of maize with maize chloro- tic mottle virus symptoms (Photo 2) and any virus from the family Potyviridae, these include wheat streak mosaic virus, maize dwarf mosaic virus symptoms or sugarcane mosaic virus symptoms (for- merly maize dwarf mosaic virus-B) (Photo 3). Maize lethal necrosis (MLN) is a disease of maize caused by coinfection of maize with maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and one of several viruses from the Potyviridae, such as sugarcane mosaic virus, maize dwarf mosaic virus, Johnsongrass mosaic virus or wheat streak mosaic virus. The Maize Lethal Necrosis Disease (MLND) is a result of a combination of two viruses, the Maize Chlorotic Mottle Virus (MCMoV) and any of the cereal viruses in the Potyviridae group, like the Sugarcane Mosaic Virus (SCMV), Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus (WSMV) or Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus (MDMV). 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