[272] By the 1960s, the city was well known to overseas audiences through films such as The World of Suzie Wong. [61] Kai Tak Airport began operation in 1924, and the colony avoided a prolonged economic downturn after the 1925–26 Canton–Hong Kong strike. [29] The territory's highest point is Tai Mo Shan, 957 metres (3,140 ft) above sea level. As Wan Chai Gap had also fallen that same day, the British had no choice but to surrender. [79] This was followed by the 2003 SARS epidemic, during which the territory experienced its most serious economic downturn. [226], Hong Kong generates most of its electricity locally. [69] With a rapidly increasing population, the colonial government began reforms to improve infrastructure and public services. [154], Undeveloped terrain is hilly to mountainous, with very little flat land, and consists mostly of grassland, woodland, shrubland, or farmland. [258] Although the vast majority of the population is ethnically Chinese, Hong Kong has developed a distinct identity. It is spoken by 94.6 per cent of the population, 88.9 per cent as a first language and 5.7 per cent as a second language. [19] As a special administrative region, Hong Kong maintains separate governing and economic systems from that of mainland China under the principle of "one country, two systems". Isogai Rensuke became the first Japanese governor of Hong Kong. [128], The imposition of Hong Kong national security law by the central government in Beijing in June 2020 resulted in the suspension of bilateral extradition treaties by the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand in July and in October by Finland and Ireland. [223][224], Hong Kong has a highly developed, sophisticated transport network. There are great green vistas, four reservoirs, dams to investigate, bridges to cross, jungles, city and sea views, WWII fortifications, and even swimming turtles! The Governor of Hong Kong, Mark Young, surrendered in person at the temporary Japanese headquarters, on the third floor of the Peninsula Hotel, thus beginning the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong. The remaining population purport mixed identities, 23 per cent as "Hongkonger in China" and 12 per cent as "Chinese in Hong Kong". Common cha chaan teng menu items include macaroni in soup, deep-fried French toast, and Hong Kong-style milk tea. The predominant language is Cantonese, a variety of Chinese originating in Guangdong. [100][101][102], The Legislative Council has 70 members, each serving a four-year term. The territory's 2,755 km2 (1,064 sq mi) area consists of Hong Kong Island, the Kowloon Peninsula, the New Territories, Lantau Island, and over 200 other islands. One of the few heritage hotels in Hong Kong, this colonial-style landmark occupies the former Tai O Police Station and has a charm that is unparalleled on the island. [189] Cancer, pneumonia, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and accidents are the territory's five leading causes of death. [98] Its judicial system is based on common law, continuing the legal tradition established during British rule. Hong Kong was surrendered on 25 December 1941, thereafter often called "Black Christmas" by locals. This electoral arrangement has guaranteed a pro-establishment majority in the legislature since the transfer of sovereignty. Since resumption of cross-boundary train service in 1979, many rail and road links have been improved and constructed (facilitating trade between regions). [278] Despite a general decline since late in the decade,[279] Cantopop remains dominant in Hong Kong; contemporary artists such as Eason Chan, Joey Yung, and Twins are popular in and beyond the territory. [105] All popularly elected members are chosen by proportional representation. IFC Mall. Aberdeen is a town of approximately 60,000 people on the south side of Hong Kong Island. [247] The vast majority of this energy comes from fossil fuels, with 46 per cent from coal and 47 per cent from petroleum. Lantau Island Hong Kong – Last stop on my trip to Hong Kong: Lantau Island! [202] The city's location allowed it to establish a transportation and logistics infrastructure which includes the world's seventh-busiest container port[203] and the busiest airport for international cargo. August 2011 dusk view of Hong Kong Island as seen from, Legislative Council geographical constituencies, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Country parks and conservation in Hong Kong, "Highways Department - South Island Line(East)", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hong_Kong_Island&oldid=982282356, Pages with non-numeric formatnum arguments, All Wikipedia articles written in Hong Kong English, Articles containing Chinese-language text, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2008, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles to be expanded from December 2011, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2011, Articles needing additional references from January 2019, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 October 2020, at 06:13. [245] The Central and Western District has an extensive system of escalators and moving pavements, including the Mid-Levels escalator (the world's longest outdoor covered escalator system). Hongkonger and foreign women and girls are forced into prostitution in brothels, homes, and businesses in the city. [108] Hong Kong is represented in the National People's Congress by 36 deputies chosen through an electoral college, and 203 delegates in the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference appointed by the central government. However, the population is heavily concentrated along the northern shore. [236] The Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge provides a direct route to the western side of the Pearl River estuary. Legislative Council members elected by functional constituencies composed of professional and special interest groups are accountable to those narrow corporate electorates and not the general public. [162] The highest and lowest recorded temperatures in all of Hong Kong are 39.0 °C (102 °F) at Wetland Park on 22 August 2017,[163] and −6.0 °C (21.2 °F) at Tai Mo Shan on 24 January 2016. Hong Kong’s largest island, Lantau is home to some of the most iconic attractions, historic venues and even popular theme parks. Explore similarities and differences. [194] Despite government efforts to reduce the growing disparity,[195] median income for the top 10 per cent of earners is 44 times that of the bottom 10 per cent. Largest cities or municipalities in the People's Republic of China, [hœ́ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋ tɐ̀k̚.pìːt̚ hɐ̏ŋ.tsēŋ.kʰɵ́y], [hœ̂ːŋ.kɔ̌ːŋ tɐ̀k̚.pìːt̚ hɐ̏ŋ.tsēŋ.kʰɵ́y], the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation, Independent Commission Against Corruption, Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference, Office for Safeguarding National Security of the CPG in the HKSAR, Standing Committee of the National People's Congress, Chairman of the Central Military Commission, 14th most popular destination for international tourists, Hong Kong Strategic Route and Exit Number System, eighth-busiest airport by passenger traffic, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge Hong Kong Link Road, Legislative Council Disclaimer and Copyright Notice, "Survey and Mapping Office – Circulars and Publications", "Population - Overview | Census and Statistics Department", "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2020", UN Human Development Indices and Indicators 2018, Technical Legislative Amendments on Traffic Arrangements for the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge 2017, "World's Richest Cities: The Top 10 Cities Billionaires Call Home", "Country Comparison: GDP (Purchasing Power Parity)", Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, "Aquilaria sinensis and origin of the name of Hong Kong", "The Petrology of the Wong Tei Tung Stone Tool Manufacturing Site, Sham Chung, Hong Kong Sar, China", "Pro-China Party Appears Big Loser in Hong Kong Election". [103] 35 are directly elected from geographical constituencies and 35 represent functional constituencies (FC). [113] Furthermore, in circumstances where the Standing Committee declares a state of emergency in Hong Kong, the State Council may enforce national law in the region. [112] Decisions made by the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress override any territorial judicial process. Rome2rio is a door-to-door travel information and booking engine, helping you get to and from any location in the world. mi.). The original Chinese settlement on this harbour was named Hong Kong, and when British seafarers landed here in the 19th century they mistook the name of the village for the name of the entire island. The defenders retreated from the Gin Drinker's Line and consequently from Kowloon under heavy aerial bombardment and artillery barrage. [244], The Peak Tram, Hong Kong's first public transport system, has provided funicular rail transport between Central and Victoria Peak since 1888. As Wong Nai Chung Gap was a strategic important place of defence, large-scale defensive works were constructed there, including anti-aircraft batteries, howitzers, and machine gun nests. The jurisdiction of an administrative region normally covers the total area within it and may include parts of seas and the neighboring island. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. Dishes include congee, cha siu bao, siu yuk, egg tarts, and mango pudding. ", "All aboard: Hong Kong bullet train signals high-speed integration with China", "Ingenious Flipper Bridge Melds Left-Side Drivers With Right-Side Drivers", "China makes its military more visible in Hong Kong", "Racism is rife in Hong Kong and the Equal Opportunities Commission is a toothless hamster to tackle it", "These Are the Cities With the Most Ultra-Rich People", "Going up! [201], Hong Kong is the tenth-largest trading entity in exports and imports (2017), trading more goods in value than its gross domestic product. I went to the village of Ngong Ping first to visit one of the most famous attractions of Hong Kong, the Tian Tan Buddha also called Big Buddha. [19], Immediately after the transfer, Hong Kong was severely affected by several crises. Contrary to many people’s basic knowledge, Hong Kong is not a state or country but an administrative region of China. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty. The government was forced to use substantial foreign exchange reserves to maintain the Hong Kong dollar's currency peg during the 1997 Asian financial crisis,[68] and the recovery from this was muted by an H5N1 avian-flu outbreak[78] and a housing surplus. [39] Some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric Company, Hongkong and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC). [213] A similar economic partnership with Macau details the liberalisation of trade between the special administrative regions. [56], In 1839, the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium and ordered imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade. The State Council (led by the Premier of China) appoints the Chief Executive after nomination by the Election Committee, which is composed of 1,200 business, community, and government leaders. [131] Rural committee chairmen, representing outlying villages and towns, fill the 27 non-elected seats. English and Scottish forces and the Canadian Winnipeg Grenadiers vigorously defended the crucial point of Wong Nai Chung Gap, and for a while successfully secured the passage between Central and the secluded southern parts of the island. [29] The dense space led to a developed transportation network with public transport rates exceeding 90 percent. [80], Political debates after the transfer of sovereignty have centred around the region's democratic development and the central government's adherence to the "one country, two systems" principle. [289], Education in Hong Kong is largely modelled after that of the United Kingdom, particularly the English system. [170][171], Demand for new construction has contributed to frequent demolition of older buildings, freeing space for modern high-rises. [44] Bronze Age Hong Kong was featured with coarse pottery, hard pottery, quartz and stone jewelry, as well as small bronze implements. Can It Learn to Grow? [74] The impending transfer triggered a wave of mass emigration as residents feared an erosion of civil rights, the rule of law, and quality of life. Older government buildings are examples of colonial architecture. [217] The territory's minimal taxation, common law system, and civil service attract overseas corporations wishing to establish a presence in Asia. [288], The Hong Kong Jockey Club, the territory's largest taxpayer,[289] has a monopoly on gambling and provides over seven per cent of government revenue. [187], Among the religious population, the traditional "three teachings" of China, Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taoism, have the most adherents (20 per cent), and are followed by Christianity (12 per cent) and Islam (4 per cent). [211][212] The Closer Partnership Economic Arrangement formalised a policy of free trade between the two areas, with each jurisdiction pledging to remove remaining obstacles to trade and cross-boundary investment. [124] The territory actively participates in the World Trade Organization, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum, the International Olympic Committee, and many United Nations agencies. Hong Kong and Christmas Island living comparison. [6], 80.2% of Hong Kong Island's residents use Cantonese as their usual language, while 8% use English and 1.9% use Mandarin.[6]. Mainstream culture is derived from immigrants originating from various parts of China. [122] Hong Kong residents are not required to perform military service and current law has no provision for local enlistment, so its defence is composed entirely of non-Hongkongers. [312] Pay TV services operated by Cable TV Hong Kong and PCCW offer hundreds of additional channels and cater to a variety of audiences. Rome2rio is a door-to-door travel information and booking engine, helping you get to and from any location in the world. [173] Some (including the Court of Final Appeal Building and the Hong Kong Observatory) retain their original function, and others have been adapted and reused; the Former Marine Police Headquarters was redeveloped into a commercial and retail complex,[174] and Béthanie (built in 1875 as a sanatorium) houses the Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts. [110] However, mainland criminal procedure law applies to cases investigated by the Office for Safeguarding National Security of the CPG in the HKSAR. These were especially prolific during the immediate post-war period, when many were rapidly built to house large numbers of Chinese migrants. The mountain ranges across the island are also famous for hiking. [148] The law criminalises acts that were previously considered protected speech under Hong Kong law and establishes the Office for Safeguarding National Security of the CPG in the HKSAR, an investigative office under Central People's Government authority immune from HKSAR jurisdiction. 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