It is the lowermost layer of the atmosphere. The gravitational attraction* between the earth and air molecules is greater for those molecules nearer to earth than those further away — they have more weight — dragging them closer together and increasing the pressure (force per unit area) between them. Your email address will not be published. Atmosphere is the air surrounding the earth. Higher concentration of dust particles is found in subtropical and temperate regions due to dry winds in comparison to equatorial and polar regions. This is an important topic to study for candidates, as this is a part of the UPSC geography syllabus. It is the source of all kinds of precipitation. Other gases like argon, carbon dioxide, neon, helium, hydrogen, etc. The atmosphere can be divided into five layers according to the diversity of temperature and density. It is the third layer of the atmosphere spreading over the stratosphere. They are: 1. Plz provide all material in sequence manner. It contains electrically charged particles known as ions, and hence, it is known as the. For cracking the IAS. Rated among the best, emerging online test preparation startups, Clear IAS also offers for free, the popular Clear IAS android app. This pressure is called atmospheric pressure. Pressure Gradient Force. Koppen Climate Classification System. The thickness of the troposphere is greatest at the equator because heat us transported to great heights by strong convectional currents. (See Major Ocean Currents: How to learn faster?) Ozone is another important component of the atmosphere found mainly between 10 and 50 km above the earth’s surface. I bought it and found it to be the best available online." This rising volume of carbon dioxide is the main reason for global warming. ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE (वायुमंडलीय दबाव) // PART- 1 // By Prof. SS OJHA - Duration: 24:23. However, 99 % of the total mass of the atmosphere is confined to the height of 32 km from the earth’s surface. These dust particles help in the condensation of water vapour. Atmospheric pressure is also measured using an aneroid barometer, in which the sensing element is one or more hollow, partially evacuated, corrugated metal disks supported against collapse by an inside or outside spring; the change in the shape of the disk with changing pressure can be recorded using a pen arm and a clock-driven revolving drum. The winds in the upper atmosphere, 2 – 3 km above the surface, are free from frictional effect of the surface and are controlled by the pressure gradient and the Coriolis force. Therefore, if the surface Atmospheric Pressure at any place is 1,000 mb, then the Pressure at 1 km above the surface will be (1000 – 100) mb i.e. Evolution and present composition of the atmosphere • For life to flourish on the surface of the earth, the atmosphere needs to have essential components like ox-ygen for respiration, CO 2 and other greenhouse gases to maintain the temperature on the surface, ozone to protect life from ultraviolet radiation and the right atmospheric pressure. As the Pressure depends on the number of air molecules present at any place, it varies both vertically as well as horizontally. IT IS VERY NICE ARTICLE. One atmosphere is 1,013 millibar s, … The atmosphere is a mixture of different gases. It is expressed in ‘milibar’ or mb unit. We all know that earth is a unique planet due to the presence of life. Movements of ocean water are also affected by external forces like the sun, moon and the winds.The major movements of the ocean waters can be classified into three. It is the region of the stratosphere that absorbs most of the sun’s ultra-violet radiations. 2) Consider the following statements and identify the right ones. Major Ocean Currents: How to learn faster? If the materials find a way to come out on the surface, it is called lava. These are alluvial f, On 21st June, the northern hemisphere is tilted towards the sun. CO2 is a poor greenhouse gas. Yes, I want ClearIAS to help me score high! Very Nice article. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking PO, SSC, state civil services exams, and so on. Air pressure is measured with the help of a mercury barometer or the aneroid barometer. In this layer, the temperature starts decreasing with increasing altitude and reaches up to – 100 degree Celsius at the height of 80 km. ClearIAS provides free IAS online coaching, guidance, strategies, books, online study-materials and mock tests with a vision that no candidate should be left out of UPSC exam competition due to in-accessibility of expensive IAS classroom coaching. It is expressed in atm (Atmosphere), mb (millibar) and Pa (Pascal). Atmospheric pressure reduces with altitude for two reasons, both of which are related to gravity. 1. Geography with Prof. SS Ojha 79,315 views 24:23 The atmospheric pressure is expressed in units of milibar. Therefore this layer is called ‘changing sphere’ or troposphere. appeared first on ClearIAS. Therefore, at a place, if the air is dense for instance near the Earth’s surface (due to Gravity), the atmospheric pressure will be more. The first version of his climate classification scheme appeared in 1918, and he continued to modify and refine it for the rest of his life, the last version being published in 1936. Higher percentage indicates that the air-water mixture is more humid. If the materials remain below the surface, it is called magma. We regularly update our most important notes in sequence manner in the link – https://www.clearias.com/downloads/. The air never remains static in this layer. i) Air pressure decreases when air descends. The temperature remains almost the same in the lower part of this layer up to the height of 20 km. The air is one among the necessary conditions for the existence of life on this planet. The amount of water vapour decreases with altitude. The height of this layer is about 18 km on the equator and 8 km on the poles. It envel… Due to gravitythe air at the surface is denser and hence has higher pressure. Radio waves transmitted from the earth are reflected back to the earth by this layer and due to this, radio broadcasting has become possible. Atmospheric pressure is the weight of a column of air contained in a unit area from the mean sea level to the top of the atmosphere. 3. inflow of air at upper level of atmosphere. Evaporation takes place in the oceans, seas, rivers, ponds and lakes while transpiration takes place from the plants, trees and living beings. It envelops the earth all round and is held in place by the gravity of the earth. The highest pressure is at sea level and the lowest pressure is at the end of troposphere. Water vapour reaches in the atmosphere through evaporation and transpiration. When the volume of other gases remains constant in the atmosphere, the volume of the carbon dioxide has been rising in the past few decades mainly because of the burning of fossil fuels. It is the movement of weathered materials down the slope due to gravitational forces. You all know that the ocean water is never still. Water vapour also contributes to the stability and instability in the air. Thanks for sharing this. 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