Introduction to Diversity in Public Relations, 12. Required fields are marked *. Ethics, also called moral philosophy, the discipline concerned with what is morally good and bad and morally right and wrong. While this idea initially may seem appealing, particularly with a field that has a core duty to the public, it does not provide a solid ethical framework for decision-making. Professionals must be able to evaluate decisions and choices with concrete ethical guidelines instead of hoping that certain outcomes will result in them having made an ethical choice. Business Ethics – Theories of Business Ethics: Teleological and Deontological Theories. Meta-ethics deals with the nature of moral judgement. Thus, according to the ethical or moral relativists, there is no objective right and wrong. Thank you for reading and commenting. Ethical behaviour of people doing business is very important in our society. The challenge in deontology is obvious: establishing a reasoned, objective definition of “duty” for the individual. Teleological theories, and . There are generally three philosophical approaches, or what may be considered the science, to ethical reasoning: When people talk about these areas, they are usually discussing an area of ethics known as normative ethics, or the process of considering and determining ethical behavior. The ethics are mainly divided into two categories depending upon the morality of humanity. They attempt to be coherent and systematic, striving to answer the fundamental practical ethical questions. In recent years applied ethical issues have been subdivided into convenient groups such as medical ethics, business ethics, environmental ethics, and sexual ethics. Ethical Theories As mentioned previously, Rae suggests that ethics are a process that is both an art and a science. There are generally three philosophical approaches, or what may be considered the science, to ethical reasoning: Conclusion: There … Bowen points out that “consequences are too unpredictable to be an accurate measure of the ethics of a situations.” In other words, consequences of actions can be highly volatile or impossible, even, to predict. The idea of absolutism and relativism can be illustrated with two similar concepts. Your email address will not be published. Privacy Policy | Copyright Information and Legal Statements, 1. The ethical theories that are mentioned higher than attach to those principles as each single theory supports that the most effective practices should be followed, and therefore the harmony is additionally inspired by all. 1.2. To which one should a professional defer? Business ethics theories refer to the moral principles that a company implements to ensure that employees within in a company act with acceptable behavior. e Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong behavior ". Thank you for sharing this most worthy topic of inquiry. RevLady from Lantana, Florida on August 29, 2011: A great synopsis of the ever elusive definition "ethics." These three theories of ethics (utilitarian ethics, deontological ethics, virtue ethics) form the foundation of normative ethics conversations. one among the theories that varies from the principles of ACM and IEEE computing is virtue ethics that place personal interest higher than the general public interest. If there is a virtue of loyalty to a client and honesty to the public, what happens when they conflict? In an effort to establish some ethical guidelines for business, three normative ethical theories have evolved in Western capitalist societies. In other words, if a solution drastically harms a minority group, would it be ethical if the majority benefited from that decision? Types of Teleological Ethical Theories Introduction to Ethical Theories 2. Relativism determines morals and ethics according to the society that is being observed. Ethical theories are important to study in order to establish a strong foundation for challenging situations or guide decisions — how do we know whether something is right or wrong? In fact, for centuries, philosophers have come up with theoretical ways of telling right from wrong and for giving guidelines about how to live and act ethically. Deontological theories. When faced with an ethical situation, then, the process is simply one of identifying one’s duty and making the appropriate decision. In the study of ethics there are three types of ethical theories: intuition-based, end-based and duty-based. This article will explore and summarise the four main ethical theories that have relevance for healthcare assistants. Ethical theories depend on what is right and wrong and the end result of the action. Ethical Basics. These challenges are definitely ones that should be considered when relying on this as an ethical system. Pages in this category should be moved to subcategories where applicable. Ethical theory serves as the foundation for ethical solutions to the difficult situations people encounter in life. The two biggest proponents of … The first ethical system in normative ethics, utilitarianism, is often equated with the concept of “the greatest good for the greatest number.” The idea is that ethical decisions are made based on the consequences of the action, which is why it is also sometimes called consequentialism. First, rather than looking at the choice or action itself, decision-makers are forced to guess the potential outcomes of their choice in order to determine what is ethical. Philosophers nowadays tend to divide ethical theories into three areas: metaethics, normative ethics and applied ethics. Ethics or morality (and we’ll use these terms interchangeably) is the broader arena in which any special set of ethical problems is found. Grunig believes this is a faulty line of reasoning when he suggested that: “We believe, in contrast, the public relations should be based on a worldview that incorporates ethics into the process of public relations rather than on a view that debates the ethics of its outcomes.” In other words, ethics should be about the decision-making process, not just the outcome, which can’t be guaranteed. Our moral belief about life changes over time. These are: utilitarianism, deontology, virtue ethics and principlism. • Most everyone shares “core values”, desiring: – Life – Happiness – Ability to accomplish goals • Two ways to view world – Selfish point of view: consider only your own self and your core values – Ethical point of view: respect other people and their core values • A society is an association of people organized under a system of … 1. It was interesting and presented in a way that is comprehensible. Many scholars in public relations identify these issues, as well as others, as evidence that utilitarianism, sometimes called consequentialism due the concept relying on the consequence of a decision, is not as strong of a fit for public relations professional ethics. Psychologist Carol Gilligan and philosopher Nel Noddingsboth contributed to the development of this theory, which originated from a feminist school of thought. In other words, the ethics encompass the human rights and responsibilities, the way to lead a good life, the language of right and wrong, and a difference between good and bad. In this lesson, we explored ethics of care theory which is a relationship-based approach to ethics, as opposed to a justice-based approach. The utilitarian approach focuses on using ethical actions that will promote the most good or value among a society while limiting the amount of harm to as few people as possible. 2. Introduction to Public Relations Ethics, 10. Two approaches to ethical theory Ethical theory in turn divides into two main types or approaches: virtue ethics: begins by considering what makes a person (or his/her character, character traits, or motives) morally good … They are attempts, in other words, to tell a single “story” about what we are obligated to do, without referring directly to specific examples. They include the stockholder theory, the stakeholder theory and the social-contract theory. Ethical Theory: an Overview Introduction: 1. Ethical Theories Definition: The Ethics is the branch of philosophy that deals with the principles of morality and the well-defined standards of right and wrong that prescribe the human character and conduct in terms of obligations, rights, rules, benefit to society, fairness, etc. First, in terms of the public relations profession, the focus on virtues of the professional themselves seems to miss the importance and role of obligations to clients and publics. Deontological theories set forth formal or relational criteria such as equality or impartiality; teleological theories, by contrast, provide material or substantive criteria, as, for example, happiness or pleasure (see utilitarianism). According to teleological theories the Tightness of an action is determined solely by its … to ethical theory –to be filled in further, as needed to locate Mill’s theory. Finally, a third and growing area of philosophical reasoning with ethics is known as virtue ethics, one that has gained more attention in public relations scholarship in recent years. Several philosophers have propounded different types of ethical theories which are listed below: Further, ethics can be classified into three major study areas: Thus, ethics are the well-defined standards that impose obligations to refrain human beings from any misconduct, which could be harmful to the self as well as for the society. 2. Ethical theories; Theories of deduction; Metaphysical theories; Social theories; Philosophers; Concepts; Literature; Wikimedia Commons has media related to Ethical theories. The theories of business ethics can be divided into two categories: 1. The idea is that “human beings should be treated with dignity and respect because they have rights.” Put another way, it could be argued that in deontological ethics “people have a duty to respect other people’s rights and treat them accordingly.” The core concept behind this is that there are objective obligations, or duties, that are required of all people. For example, if the virtue of honesty is the of utmost importance to a good public relations professional, then all decisions should be made ethically to ensure honesty is preserved. This means it is concerned with what is right or wrong for the individuals and society. 1.1. The concept has been variously explained by moralists and philosophers. A dogmatic approach takes the view that there is one truth and this truth is to be imposed in all situations. Ethical Theories are attempts to provide a clear, unified account of what our ethical obligations are. Ethical theories represent the grand ideas on which guiding principles are based. How can we use ethical theories and frameworks to help us determine appropriate legislation or whether or not a particular technology is designed to be ethical? They need ethical principles derived from the fundamental values that define their work as a public relations professional.” A key thought in this concept is the assumption that there needs to be some objective morals that professionals rely on in order to determine ethical behavior. Doing what is right is obeying your duties and the rule that guide a business. That ideological consistency gives the theory posed here a solid theoretical foundation with the practice of public relations as well as a normative theory function.” Similarly, Fitzpatrick & Gauthier suggest, “practitioners need some basis on which to judge the rightness of the decisions they make everyday. I'm glad you stopped by. This viewpoint corresponds to absolutism. 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