[16] Nevertheless, one must note that this period would not have come about unless the production of great pieces of artwork did benefit the economic and more importantly the political interests of the patron. 24, No. [18] Marsilio Ficino, ‘Documents on Florence and its Embellishment’, 73. 52, No. the works of PLATO and ARISTOTLE.Typically, this has been seen not only as the rediscovery of the thought and work of the ancients, but as a rebirth of the human spirit, the birth of modern humanism. star Top subjects are Literature, History, and Law and Politics One could argue that the Renaissance was a golden age in that it represented the high point of … [43] Marsilio Ficino, ‘Documents on Florence and its Embellishment’, 73. [23] Niccolo Machiavelli, History of Florence and the Affairs of Italy: from the earliest Times to the death of Lorenzo the Magnificent, xxi-xxv. The Golden Age of Greece and the Renaissance in Europe were both characterized mainly by. [31] This showed that Lorenzo was an exceptional leader and that he played an integral role in making this period be remembered as ‘a Golden Age’. Further, it was in this setting of Florence being a peaceful republican city according to fifteenth and sixteenth century historians that it became a major urban center for international trade and commerce, which added to the city’s greatness. I will also only be using fifteenth and sixteenth century historian’s interpretations to show why it was a Golden age. A major reason why fifteenth and sixteenth century historians believed that Lorenzo’s period of influence was a unique and remarkable era was because of the emphasis placed on a humanist education, especially of talented or wealthy Florentine individuals, as it led to a revitalization in the arts to occur. The real Renaissance is that period of time that spans the gap between the Middle Ages and life that is somewhat more recognizable by us modern folk. Q. While taking the classical past as its model, the Renaissance was one of the most creative periods in human history, comparable only to the Golden Age of Hellenic Athens in the fifth century before Christ. 55, No. Ferdinard Schevill, History of Florence: from the Founding of the City through the Renaissance, (New York: Harcourt, Brace and Company, 1936), p 403; Gene Brucker, Renaissance Florence, 213; Kenneth Bartlett, The Civilization of the Italian Renaissance, 209. renaissance: golden age of europe. ‘The Astonishing Glories of Lorenzo de’Medici’, in The Civilization of the Italian Renaissance, edited by Kenneth Bartlett, (Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992), 128. [36] This was because Lorenzo’s grandfather had secretly controlled and manipulated the political system to his own advantage, through the accoppiatori system of electing politicians. ‘On Law and Justice’, in The Civilization of the Italian Renaissance, edited by Kenneth Bartlett, (Lexington: D.C. Heath and Company, 1992), 125. 25 (1992), 67-83; Ronald Lightbown, Sandoro Botticelli: Volume II Complete Catalogue, (London: Paul Elek, 1978), 64. The golden age, the silver age, the bronze age, the heroic age and the iron age. Koenigsberger, edited by P. Mack and M.C. [43] This was because of the humanist education and its emphasis on platonic ideals, as it helped to create the most beautiful pieces of artwork, which were supported by wealthy patrons and occurred in a peaceful and successful commercial republic. ¾ (Jul.-Dec. 1961), p 307; Selwyn Brinton, The Golden Age of the Medici: Cosimo, Piero, Lorenzo de’Medici 1434-1494, (London: Methuen and Co, 1925), 151; Ronald Weissman, ‘Taking Patronage Seriously: Mediterranean Values and Renaissance society’, in Patronage, Art, and Society in Renaissance Italy, edited by F.W. This period, which lasted from the 1910s to the mid 1930s, is considered a golden age for African American music, art, literature, and performance. By now it was 2013, and at this point I had a chance conversation with Rob Davies, recently arrived in the British Library’s Publications department. [25] Despite fifteenth century Italian republics being different to twenty-first century republics, Ficino often spoke highly of the ‘glory…[of] the Florentine Republic’. [4] In particular, these historians argued that it was the humanist education of wealthy and talented Florentine individuals, the role played by the patrons, and the fact that Florence was a peaceful commercial republic that were the key features as it why Lorenzo’s period of influence was ‘a Golden Age’, especially in the arts. 1 (Mar., 1983), 8. Bullard, ‘The magnificent Lorenzo de’Medici: between myth and history’, 32; Mark Phillips, Francesco Guicciardini: The Historian’s Craft. - rebirth of the greek and roman culture. Although, Machiavelli stated that the Florentine citizens had suffered economically from Lorenzo’s endeavors as leading banker and de-facto ruler of Florence, Florence still remained not only one of the main banking and financial capitals of the world but also a major center for international trade. ‘Commentary on Plato’s Symposium on Love: On the Two Origins of Love and the Double Venus’, 119; M Ficino. ISBN: 978-1-68380-273-0 Creative Commons Licensing This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Bullard, ‘The magnificent Lorenzo de’Medici: between myth and history’, 30; Nicolai Rubinstein, The Government of Florence Under the Medici (1434 to 1494), v; Thomas Puttfarken, ‘Golden Age and Justice in Sixteenth-Century Florentine Political Thought and Imagery: Observations on Three Pictures by Jacopo Zucchi’, in Journal of the Warburg and Courtland Institutes, Vol. If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware. The joy I took in her detective puzzles made me resolve—even at that tender age—to become a crime writer one day. Tags: Question 47 . The word "Renaissance" in itself is defined as a … SURVEY . (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1997), p v; A. Which characteristic was common to the golden age of Greece and the Italian renaissance? Essays in Honour of H.G. Historians often bicker about the exact timeline and the most significant period of the Renaissance. [27] Francesco Guicciardini, ‘A Portrait of Lorenzo de’Medici’, p 1; Niccolo Machiavelli. [32] Niccolo Machiavelli, History of Florence and the Affairs of Italy: from the earliest Times to the death of Lorenzo the Magnificent, 405; Paul Strathern, The Medici: Godfathers of the Renaissance, 148. francesco petrarch. [16] Francesco Guicciardini, ‘A Portrait of Lorenzo de’Medici – 1509’, 76. social reform and political upheaval. Renaissance to England’s Golden Age. [8] While, Ficino a neo-Platonist also recognized the importance of a humanist education, as it led him to become the leader of the Platonic Academy whereby he taught and influenced many major artists of the time such as Michelangelo who adopted Platonic ideals in his works, as in his famous sculpture the David. [24] M Ficino. This time had lasted from about 400 BC to about 400 AD. [22] While, in the field of history and philosophy the invention of the printing press in the late fifteenth century began to revolutionize the dissemination of knowledge. artistic and literary achievements. “The final characteristic separating the Golden Age from the recent renaissance is the growth of security studies within the academic world. Translated by Mario Domandi, (New York: Harper and Row, 1970), 1. Florence was also a large urbanized city with a large manufacturing sector, especially in cloth, which was the city’s largest industry, and consequently added more economic power to Florence. [40] Guicciardini also revealed that Lorenzo was extremely suspicious of people and rival families  who wished to undermine his power and used his private army to deal with opponents. 13, No. [39] Under Lorenzo de-facto rule they were not entitled to free speech and their civil liberties were curtailed. [37] Francesco Guicciardini, ‘A Portrait of Lorenzo de’Medici’, 1; Niccolo Machiavelli, The Florentine History, 273; F.W. Lorenzo de Medici’s period of influence in Florence (1462-1492) best exemplifies the Golden Age of the Renaissance. The Harlem Renaissance was the Golden Age of African-American culture in the United States, which occurred in the 1920s until the early 1930s. Kent and Patricia Simons with J.C. Eade, (Canberra: Humanities Research Centre, 1987), 25; Robert Gaston, ‘Liturgy and Patronage in San Lorenzo, Florence, 1350-1650’, in Patronage, Art, and Society in Renaissance Italy, edited by F.W. [26] While, Guicciardini and Machiavelli revealed that although members of the Pazzi family had tried to challenge Lorenzo’s tyrannical power in 1478, the city under Lorenzo’s de-facto reign was still a stable constitutional republic where large numbers of the citizens participated, and it had consequently moved away from being totally a feudal dictatorship. answer choices . A few scholars date the end of the golden age around 1350 linking with the Timurid Renaissance, while several modern historians and scholars place the end of the Islamic Golden Age as late as the end of 15th to 16th centuries meeting with the Age of the Islamic Gunpowders. Fact 4: The word ‘renaissance’ means ‘rebirth’ in French. As I got older, I went to great lengths to track down other writers from the Golden Age, and haunted second hand bookshops. [21] M Ficino. [4] Marsilio Ficino, ‘Documents on Florence and its Embellishment’, 73. Despite the fact that Florence was a peaceful republic for most of Lorenzo’s period of influence, according to fifteenth and sixteenth century historians one must also understand that Florence was also characterized by corruption and political tensions under the repressive de-facto rule of Lorenzo, whereby the citizens were not free and their civil liberties were limited. The order of these historical events were 1) the golden age of Greece, 2) the fall of the Roman empire, 3) crusades, 4) renaissance. Lorenzo’s period of influence was also seen as a unique and wonderful age by fifteenth and sixteenth century historians because Florence was at the height of its republicanism. [1] For the purpose of this essay I have narrowed down the time frame of the Renaissance to the period, which I believe best represents the ‘Golden Age’, and that was during the de-facto reign of Lorenzo de Medici in Florence (1462-1492). The Renaissance 1-89 The Reformation 91-145 England in the Golden Age 147-201. 43 (1980), 130; Selwyn Brinton. Lorenzo de Medici’s period of influence in Florence (1462-1492) best exemplifies the Golden Age of the Renaissance. [5] In particular, the humanist education emphasized five subjects, grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history and ethics, as well as according to Ficino painting, sculpture and architecture. ‘The Astonishing Glories of Lorenzo de’Medici’, 128. The word was first seen in English in the 1830s. [3] Niccolo Machiavelli, History of Florence and the Affairs of Italy: from the earliest Times to the death of Lorenzo the Magnificent, (New York: Harper Touchbooks, 1960), xxi-xxv; Francesco Guicciardini, The History of Florence. Brown, ‘Lorenzo and Public Opinion in Florence: The Problem of Opposition’, p 62; Judith Hook, Lorenzo De’Medici: An Historical Biography, p 125; M.M. 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