Salt Lake City Army Air Field...Utah...  In January 1946, Generals Eisenhower and Spaatz agreed on an Air Force organization composed of the Strategic Air Command, the Air Defense Command, the Tactical Air Command, the Air Transport Command and the supporting Air Technical Service Command, Air Training Command, the Air University, and the Air Force Center. , All B-52F missions in 1965 were against targets in South Vietnam (RVN) except for the December "...Duck Flight mission [that] hit a suspected VC supply storage area [for which] part of the target box was in Laos. This was soon followed by SAC's first Titan I ICBMs at Lowry AFB's Titan I Missile Complex 1A in Colorado being placed on alert that June. Posters Images . , Strategic Air Command was originally established in the U.S. Army Air Forces on 21 March 1946, acquiring part of the personnel and facilities of the Continental Air Forces (CAF), the World War II command tasked with the air defense of the continental United States (CONUS). HEADQUARTERS STRATEGIC AIR COMMAND Directorate of Aircraft Maintenance Aircraft Engineering Division Engineering Report No. US bomber strength peaked with "over 2,500 bombers" after production "of over 2,000 B-47s and almost 750 B-52s" (circa 1956, 50% of SAC aircraft & 80% of SAC bombers were B-47s). Strategic Air Command (SAC), U.S. military command that served as the bombardment arm of the U.S. Air Force and as a major part of the nuclear deterrent against the Soviet Union between 1946 and 1992. This was the description of what would become Building 500 at Offutt AFB and the new headquarters complex built expressly for SAC, with construction commencing in 1955.  Finally, during January 1958's Exercise Fir Fly, SAC "faker" aircraft (twelve B-47s) simulated bombing strikes against metropolitan areas and military installations in the United States defended by Air Defense Command's 28th Air Division.  The following month, in March 1965, the Strategic Air Command Advanced Echelon (SACADVON) was established as a "...liaison unit for CINCSAC [was] located at MACV Headquarters to assist with the B-52 effort. Concurrent with this increased alert posture and in order to better hone strategic bombing skillsets, the 1955 SAC Bombing and Navigation Competition was characterized by radar bomb scoring (RBS) runs on Amarillo, Denver, Salt Lake City, Kansas City, San Antonio and Phoenix; and the 1957 competition (nicknamed "Operation Longshot") had three targets: Atlanta, Kansas City, and St. South Auxiliary #1, Deming, New Mexico... $50.26: $3.59: Hardcover, January 1, 1979: $114.08 . Unfortunately, postwar budget and personnel cuts had had an insidious effect on SAC as its Deputy Commander, Major General Clements McMullen, implemented mandated force reductions. As a result, by the end of 1947, only two of SAC's eleven groups were combat ready. On 30 June 1960, SAC had 696 aircraft on alert in the Zone of Interior, also known as the ZI (referred to today as the Continental United States, or CONUS) and at overseas bases. In 1969, "...SAC's B-52s and B-58s could carry B28, B41, B43, B53, and BA53 nuclear weapons" (SAC had 311 nuclear AGM-28 Hound Dog missiles at the end of the year. Consisting of four Boeing E-4 aircraft, these highly modified Boeing 747 airframes were assigned to the 55th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing at Offutt AFB and were forward deployed as necessary to support the National Command Authority. United States Strategic Air Command (SAC) relied upon a variety of aircraft types to deter - and in some cases counter - Soviet aggression during the Cold War period. Strategic Air Command: People, Aircraft and Missiles Every Man a Tiger (Revised): The Gulf War Air Campaign (Commander Series, Band 2) Nike Herren Air Max Command Leather Turnschuhe, Schwarz (Black/Anthracite/Neutral Grey 001), 42.5 EU Nike Air Max Command leather; Hill, M: Peace Was Their Profession: Strategic Air Command: A Tribute The Command of the Air Men Of Air: The Doomed … Create Report. Material presented throughout this website is for historical and entertainment value only and should not to be construed as usable for hardware restoration, maintenance, or general operation. An additional underground "16,000 square-foot, two-story reinforced concrete" command post for HQ SAC was also constructed at Offutt AFB from 1986 to 1989 from a design by Leo A. Daly, who had designed the adjoining 1957 bunker. By early 1973, offensive SAC air operations in Southeast Asia ceased and numerous SAC aircrewmen who had been shot down and captured as prisoners of war by North Vietnam were repatriated to the United States. ":121 In April 1966, Vietnam operations began with the B-52D model, a 1956 model designed to use the AGM-28 Hound Dog cruise missile and the ADM-20 Quail aerial decoys for low altitude operations and modified in late 1965 by Project Big Belly to increase conventional bomb capacity. HEADQUARTERS STRATEGIC AIR COMMAND Directorate of Aircraft Maintenance Aircraft Engineering Division SL/ '/'/?Final ingineering A'epwt.o. Those installations included: On 31 March 1946, the following additional installation was also assigned to SAC: Under the first SAC Commander in Chief, General George C. Kenney, initial units reporting to the Strategic Air Command headquarters on 21 March 1946 included the Second Air Force, the IX Troop Carrier Command and the 73d Air Division. Strategic Air Command (film) Strategic Air Command. McNamara, Clifford, and theBurdens of Vietnam1965-1969, "Sunday Union - Google News Archive Search", Searching the Skies: The Legacy of the United States Cold War Defense Radar Program, Address to the Nation on Reducing United States and Soviet Nuclear Weapons, "The Unified Command Plan and Combatant Commands: Background and Issues for Congress", Organization of United States Air Force Units in the Gulf War, Alert Operations and the Strategic Air Command , 1957-1991, Air Force Special Film Project 1236, "SAC Command Post", House Subcommittee on Tactical Air and Land Forces, House Armed Services Subcommittee on Strategic Forces, Senate Armed Services Subcommittee on Strategic Forces, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Strategic_Air_Command&oldid=990843400, Major commands of the United States Air Force, Bombardment units and formations of the United States Air Force, Bomber aircraft commands (military formations), 1992 disestablishments in the United States, Military units and formations established in 1946, Military units and formations disestablished in 1992, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from August 2013, Articles needing more detailed references, Articles with incomplete citations from September 2013, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, AFRES (later AFRC) HQ 10th Air Force, an ACC-gained AF Reserve fighter wing, and an AMC-gained ANG airlift wing remain, AFMC Rome Air Development Center and ANG Northeast Air Defense Sector HQ remain. SAC also often maintained a tenant presence at former SAC bases that the command subsequently transferred and relinquished to other MAJCOMs, to include but not limited to: SAC transferred to the United States Air Force on 26 September 1947, concurrent with the latter's establishment as a separate military service. By 1960, fully one third of SAC's bombers and aerial refueling aircraft were on 24-hour alert, with those crews and aircraft not already airborne ready to take off from designated alert sites at their respective bases within fifteen minutes. It was the first of four Hollywood films that depicted the role of the Strategic Air Command in the Cold War era. AFGSC currently consists of Eighth Air Force (8AF), responsible for the nuclear-capable manned heavy bomber force, and Twentieth Air Force (20AF), responsible for the ICBM force. . This included the Mach 3 North American B-70 Valkyrie in 1961, the GAM-87 Skybolt missile in 1962, and the Rocky Mountain Deep Underground Support Center in 1963. In 1992, as part of an overall post-Cold War reorganization of the U.S. Air Force, SAC was disestablished as both a Specified Command and as a MAJCOM, and its personnel and equipment redistributed among the Air Combat Command (ACC), Air Mobility Command (AMC), Pacific Air Forces (PACAF), United States Air Forces in Europe (USAFE), and Air Education and Training Command (AETC), while SAC's central headquarters complex at Offutt AFB, Nebraska was concurrently transferred to the newly created United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM), which was established as a joint Unified Combatant Command to replace SAC's Specified Command role. Following the establishment of the U.S. Air Force, most SAC installations on U.S. territory were renamed as "Air Force Base" during late 1947 and into 1948, while non-U.S. installations were renamed as "Air Base". Smoky Hill Army Air Field, Salina, Kansas Roswell Army Air Base, New Mexico SAC also conducted operations from RAF Fairford, RAF Alconbury and RAF Mildenhall in the United Kingdom, Moron AB in Spain, Lajes Field in the Azores (Portugal), RAF Akrotiri in Cyprus, Incirlik AB in Turkey, Diego Garcia in the British Indian Ocean Territory, and from multiple air bases in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates during the first Gulf War (Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm) from 1990 to 1991.. Beginning in November 1959, in order to counter Soviet surface-to-air missile threats, SAC began adding low-altitude bombing training for its manned bomber force as an adjunct to its legacy high-altitude training.  The 56th Fighter Wing was subsequently assigned to SAC on 1 October 1947. The underground nuclear bunker had 24-inch thick walls and base floor, 10-inch thick intermediate floors, and 24-to-42-inch thick roof. This program, in effect from 1957 to 1966, was known as "Reflex" with Sixteenth Air Force (16AF), a SAC numbered air force permanently stationed in Europe, having tactical and administrative control of the forward-deployed aircraft and units. On 15 March 1953, a 38th Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron RB-50 returned fire on a Soviet MiG-15, while a 343d Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron RB-50 was shot down over the Sea of Japan 2 days after the Korean Armistice, while on 7 November 1954, an RB-29 was shot down near Hokkaido Island in northern Japan. On 22 November 1988, the Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit, under development as the Advanced Technology Bomber (ATB), a so-called "black program" since 1979, was officially acknowledged and rolled out for the first time for public display. The U.S. government claimed that the operation had succeeded in forcing North Vietnam's Politburo to return to the negotiating table, with the Paris Peace Accords signed shortly after the operation. In some instances SAC bombers would oppose ADC fighter-interceptors simulating Soviet interceptors. The prestige of the Strategic Air Command bespoke assurance that whatever the numbers of personnel and aircraft, if determination and training could deliver the atomic blow, the threat of atomic retaliation was real. ) JSTPS also included non-SAC agencies tasked with preparing the Single Integrated Operation Plan, or SIOP, and the National Strategic Target List for nuclear war. Based on the McDonnell Douglas DC-10 commercial airliner, the KC-10A Extender was deployed equipped with improved military avionics, aerial refueling, and satellite communications equipment. SAC's in-flight refueling mission began in July 1952 when its 31st Fighter-Escort Wing refueled sixty F-84G Thunderjets from Turner AFB, Georgia to Travis AFB, California non-stop with fuel from twenty-four KB-29P Superfortresses modified into aerial tankers. Birthday Blast; Events; Education; Children’s Learning Center; Join & Give. By 1975, SAC's manned bomber strength included several hundred B-52D, B-52G, B-52H and FB-111A aircraft, and "...SAC's first major exercise in 23 years" was Exercise Global Shield 79. However, on 30 June 1977, President Jimmy Carter Carter announced that the B-1A would be canceled in favor of ICBMs, submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs), and a fleet of modernized B-52s armed with air-launched cruise missiles (ALCMs). SAC's airborne alerts during this period also included Operation Chrome Dome for the bomber and tanker force. The deterrent force was in this sense beyond question. Strategic Air Command (SAC) was both a United States Department of Defense (DoD) Specified Command and a United States Air Force (USAF) Major Command (MAJCOM), responsible for Cold War command and control of two of the three components of the U.S. military's strategic nuclear strike forces, the so-called "nuclear triad", with SAC having control of land-based strategic bomber aircraft and intercontinental ballistic missiles or ICBMs (the third leg of the triad being submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) of the U.S. … O'Fallon, Missouri 28 contributions 5 helpful votes. Das Strategic Air Command (SAC; deutsch Strategisches Luftkommando) war während des Kalten Krieges die strategische Luftstreitmacht innerhalb der US-Luftwaffe, Inbegriff der militärischen Wachsamkeit sowie zentraler Bestandteil des nuklearen Abschreckungspotentials der Vereinigten Staaten. SAC aircraft used during the Vietnam War included B-52D, B-52F, B-52G, KC-135A, KC-135Q, various versions of the RC-135, SR-71, U-2, and EC-135. Although Mather AFB's navigator training mission would relocate to Randolph AFB, Texas, the Mather B-52G bomber/KC-135A tanker wing would inactivate and the AFRES KC-135 tanker group would relocate to nearby McClellan AFB, relocating again four years later to Beale AFB when another BRAC process would close McClellan AFB. See more ideas about Strategic air command, Nose art, Aircraft art. All reviews air force cold war on display strategic air command military aircraft flight simulator couple of hours gift shop aerospace museum interactive displays guided tour nice collection great place to visit sac sr hangers bomber airplane blackbird rockets holocaust omaha. On 18 March 1969, along the South Vietnamese border, SAC first bombed Cambodia (Operation Menu through 26 May 1970 was controlled by Skyspot). At the time, CAF headquarters was located at Bolling Field (later Bolling AFB) in the District of Columbia and SAC assumed occupancy of its headquarters facilities until relocating SAC headquarters (HQ SAC) to nearby Andrews Field (later Andrews AFB), Maryland as a tenant activity until assuming control of Andrews Field in October 1946.. " As a result, SAC's bombers and tankers began sitting armed ground alert at their respective bases on 1 Oct 57. By 1977, SAC had been pinning its hopes for a new manned strategic bomber in the form of the Rockwell B-1A Lancer. Concurrent with the establishment of this new headquarters facility, Lemay also increased SAC Radar Bomb Scoring (RBS) runs the same year to 12,084. The first Soviet atomic bomb test occurred on 29 August 1949 and the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) subsequently identified SAC's primary objective was to damage or destroy the Soviet Union's ability to deliver nuclear weapons.  In addition to Bolling Field and, seven months later, Andrews Field, SAC also assumed responsibility for: SAC also had seven additional CAF bases transferred on 21 March 1946 which remained in SAC through the 1947 establishment of the U.S. Air Force as an independent service. :104, In an effort to concurrently enhance it reconnaissance capabilities, SAC also received several RB-57D Canberra aircraft in April 1956, with the aircraft initially based at Turner AFB, Georgia.  8th AF took over from Third Air Division the generation of "frag" orders based on daily strike requests and amendments from COMUSMACV.. Quick Links. In October 1962, an SAC BRASS KNOB mission U-2 piloted by Major Richard S. Heyser detected Soviet intermediate range ballistic missiles in Cuba. Additional closures and divestments of SAC bases would continue throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s, accelerating even more so as a result the START I Treaty's mandated elimination of both the entire B-52G fleet and the inactivation of all Minuteman II and Peacekeeper ICBMs, as well as the 1992 reorganization of the Air Force that disestablished SAC and dispersed its assets to other new or existing MAJCOMs, primarily ACC and AMC.  Overall SAC losses during Linebacker II numbered fifteen B-52s. Sioux City Army Air Field, Iowa... The following year, Skybolt, an air-launched ballistic missile, was cancelled following numerous test failures and the perceived greater reliability of land-based and submarine-based ballistic missile systems. See all formats and editions Hide other formats and editions. Includes photos of B-36s and B-47s. Because of this shorter range, and in order to better enable the B-47 fleet to reach its target sets in the Soviet Union, SAC routinely deployed its US-based B-47 wings to overseas forward operating bases in North Africa, Spain and Turkey. ", In addition to the strategic bombing mission, SAC also devoted significant resources to aerial reconnaissance. On 11 August 1960, President Eisenhower approved the creation of the Joint Strategic Target Planning Staff (JSTPS), co-located at SAC headquarters at Offutt AFB. The 4136th Strategic Wing was formed 1 September 1958, consisting of the 906th Air Refueling Squadron, followed by the 4136th Combat Defense Squadron that was activated on 1 June 1959. Full Casts . In July 1950, in response to combat operations on the Korean peninsula, SAC dispatched ten nuclear-capable bombers to Guam and deployed four B-29 bomber wings in Korea for tactical operations, although this action caused SAC commander Lemay to comment "...too many splinters were being whittled off the [deterrence] stick". TV. Land-based ICBMs were later transferred from ACC to Air Force Space Command (AFSPC), while manned bombers remained in ACC. Rapid City Army Air Field...South Dakota Fifteenth Air Force was assigned to SAC on 31 March (15th AF's 263rd Army Air Force Base Unit—with SAC's radar detachments—transferred the same date directly under HQ SAC ), while the IX Troop Carrier Command was inactivated the same date and its assets redistributed within SAC. These 696 aircraft were 113 B-52s, 346 B-47s, 85 KC-135s, and 152 KC-97s. In 2009, the entire land-based USAF ICBM force and that portion of the USAF manned bomber force that was still nuclear-capable, e.g., the B-2 Spirit and B-52 Stratofortress, was transferred to the newly established Air Force Global Strike Command (AFGSC), while the B-1 Lancer conventional bomber force remained in ACC. Its service in SAC would be comparatively short, eventually being replaced by the FB-111 by 1970. 1967, a SAC Detachment (TUSLOG Det 50) operated at Incirlik AB, Turkey, monitoring Soviet missile telemetry from the Kapustin Yar and Tyuratam launch complexes, while in 1959, SAC's Operation Big Star studied, prototyped and evaluated the potential of deploying of Minuteman I ICBMs on civilian railroad tracks via USAF-operated locomotives and trains. Store Newsletter Enter your email below to receive product features and specials in your inbox! SAC MIKE was responsible for missile development liaison, the intermediate range Jupiter and Thor missiles having been transferred to SAC for alert in 1958..  On 17 February 1970, SAC conducted the first "GOOD LOOK" bombing of Laos at the Plaine des Jarres after B-52 photorecon missions ("GOOD LOOK ALPHA" in August 1969 and "GOOD LOOK BRAVO" c. 15 January 1970) and the observations of a Skyspot installation in Thailand. Tonopah Army Air Field...Nevada... The C-119 and C-130 cargo planes were equipped with awesome fire power to support the ground troops. In 1947, before the USAF was established as an independent service, construction commenced on Limestone AAF, Maine (later renamed Loring AFB), a new SAC installation specifically designed to accommodate the B-36 Peacemaker. See more ideas about Strategic air command, Strategic, Usaf. Jan 22, 2015 - Explore SAC Aerospace Museum's board "STRATEGIC AIR COMMAND", followed by 243 people on Pinterest. These aircraft were the backbone of SAC. SAC's Emergency War Order (EWO) required the first aircraft to be airborne within 8 minutes and all aircraft to be airborne within 15 minutes after notification.. Bomber aircraft on ground alert were armed with nuclear weapons while aerial tanker aircraft were sufficiently fueled to provide maximum combat fuel offload to the bombers.. In 1981, SAC received a new air refueling tanker aircraft to supplement the aging KC-135 Stratotanker force. South Sulphur Auxiliary #3, Texas... Linebacker II was a modified extension of the Operation Linebacker bombings conducted from May to October 1972, with the emphasis of the new campaign shifted to attacks by B-52 Stratofortress heavy bombers rather than smaller tactical fighter aircraft. At a lower echelon, SAC headquarters divisions included Aircraft Engineering, Missile Concept, and Strategic Communications. To motivate crews and improve operational effectiveness command-wide, SAC established a competition, the first so-called "Bomb Comp" in 1948. 1946-1992 United States Air Force major command; predecessor of Air Force Global Strike Command, For a list of the 32 "airfields and installations" for which SAC assumed jurisdiction, For the underground NORAD and aboveground Pentagon command posts, see, Run-up to Korea and start of the Cold War, Nuclear Bunkers, SAC Ground Alert, and transfer of SAC's Fighter-Escort Wings, Nuclear missiles, aircrew readiness, airborne alert, and strategic reconnaissance, Vietnam War and latter half of the Cold War, Post-Vietnam, 1970s budget cuts, 1980s renewal, and the Cold War redux, End of the Cold War and Operation Desert Storm, (partial transcript at AlternateWars.com). During the mid-1950s, having recalled numerous World War II USAAF and Korean War USAF combat veteran pilots, navigators, bombardiers and aircrewmen from inactive reserve status back to various lengths of active duty, SAC took the lead in integrating the Air Force's reserve components into the overall SAC structure. USAF nuclear forces in ACC and AFSPC were then combined with the United States Navy's Fleet Ballistic Missile submarine forces to form the United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM), which took over the SAC Headquarters complex at Offutt AFB. Exercise FOX PETER ONE followed with 31st FEW fighters being refueled Hickam AFB en route to Hawaii.. Later missions were Project LEOPARD along the Chukchi Peninsula, followed by Projects RICKRACK, STONEWORK, and COVERALLS. Please direct all other inquiries to militaryfactory AT gmail.com. Linebacker II was conducted from 18 December to 29 December 1972, leading to several informal names such as "The December Raids" and "The Christmas Bombings". (presented during "Bombing in Cambodia" hearings before the, the patch with insignia that won a SAC contest, United States Strategic Air Forces in Europe, United States Strategic Air Forces in the Pacific, which conducted the first European "heavy bomber" attack by the USAAF on 17 August 1942, which executed bombing operations on 2 November 1943, Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Force, bases subsequently added to SAC in the United States, a competition, the first so-called "Bomb Comp", National Museum of the Mighty Eighth Air Force, Sky Shield II exercise followed by Sky Shield III, Soviet intermediate range ballistic missiles in Cuba, multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle, Naval Training Center Orlando McCoy Annex, Strategic Air Command in the United Kingdom, List of commanders-in-chief of the Strategic Air Command, "Alliant Techsystems Names Blalock to Head New Colorado Springs Field Marketing Office", "Fact Sheet: Air Force Global Strike Command", Rise of the Fighter Generals: The Problem of Air Force Leadership 1945–1982, History of Strategic Air Command: Chapter III Operations and Training, Inside The Cold War; A Cold Warrior's Reflections, Historical Summary: Radar Bomb Scoring, 1945–1983, "SAC History: This section is still under development", "Cold War Story, Chapter 2, The Need to Know-Cold War Aerial Recon Begins, Page 4 of 5 Pages", Cold War Infrastructure for Strategic Air Command: The Bomber Mission, A Brief History of Keesler AFB and the 81st Training Wing, http://www.rameyafb.net/the-history-pages/borinquen-field-renamed-in-1948/, "Global Strike Challenge – A legacy of excellence", "History of aerial refueling: Fueling the fighters", http://www.jeromegoolsby.net/military/sacstats.htmlkept, "7th Bombardment Wing Operations, Carswell AFB, 1955–1958", "Fairchild Wing To Get Trophy In Bomb Tests", "90 SAC Planes to H-Bomb 3 Target Cities Off Map", Strategic Air Command and the Alert Program: A Brief History, North American Air Defense Command and Continental Air Defense Command Historical Summary: July–December 1959, "Jet Bombers To Descend Near Alto For Series of Mock Air Attacks", Ideologies in Conflict; A Cold War Docu-Story, The SAC Mentality: The Origins of Organizational Culture in Strategic Air Command, 1946–1962, A Survey and Summary of Mathematical and Simulation Models as Applied to Weapon System Evaluation, "the nuclear information project: the airborne alert program", From Snark to Peacekeeper: A Pictorial History of Strategic Air Command Missiles, ...Selected Air and Ground Operations in Cambodia and Laos, "Part Three: Countering the Communist Threat During the Cold War", History of the Strategic Air Command: 1969, https://www.scribd.com/doc/47549447/SAC-History-1966-Study-102, http://dougkeeney.files.wordpress.com/2011/04/pages-from-sac_history_1966_study_102-laos-targets1.pdf. Strategic Air Command. See more ideas about strategic air command, military aircraft, usaf.  Also in the late 1950s, SAC continued to enhance its intelligence collection activities and develop innovative means of improving the survivability of its forces to surprise attack. The command’s mission was to be prepared to conduct long-range operations in any part of the world at any time, but its ability to do this in 1946 fell so short as to be almost negligible. Units directly under SAC HQ included the 8AF and 15AF, as well as the 311th Air Division, 4th Fighter Wing, 82nd Fighter Wing, 307th Bomb Wing, and two reconnaissance units, the 311th Reconnaissance Wing and the 46th Reconnaissance Squadron. Richmond Army Air Base, Virginia... Seymour-Johnson Field...North Carolina ):60, Although experimented with prior to World War II, SAC refined aerial refueling to a fine art. The following month, on 22 April 1960, SAC turned over the last British-based PGM-17 Thor IRBM to the Royal Air Force. SAC's first jet strategic bomber was the swept-wing B-47 medium bomber, which first entered service in 1951 and became operational within SAC in 1953. Use of low level flight route corridors known as "Oil Burner" routes (later renamed "Olive Branch" routes in the 1970s), and the first of three SAC RBS trains were utilized starting in 1960. In addition to closures of Mather AFB and Pease AFB, this would eventually include the following subsequent closure and realignment actions, primarily due to BRAC: On 1 July 1989, the 1st Combat Evaluation Group reporting directly to SAC headquarters was split with most HQ 1CEVG organizations transferring to SAC HQ (e.g., the Command Instrument Flight Division) and RBS personnel, equipment, and radar stations becoming the 1st Electronic Combat Range Group. ", On 23 May 1965, SAC B-52Fs began unarmed missions for radar mapping "...and later to test bombing with the assistance of ground homing beacons..." SAC began saturation bombing on 18 June 1965 (8000 tons per month in 1966) and conducted Operation Arc Light missions from 1965 until the end of hostilities involving U.S. forces in 1973. The newly established Air Mobility Command (AMC) inherited most of SAC's KC-135 Stratotanker aircraft and the entire KC-10 Extender aerial refueling tanker force, while some KC-135s were reassigned directly to USAFE and PACAF, with one additional air refueling wing assigned to the Air Education and Training Command (AETC) as the KC-135 formal training unit.  That same year, President Ronald Reagan reversed the 1977 Carter administration decision regarding the B-1, directing that 100 examples of a refined version of the aircraft, now designated the B-1B Lancer, be procured as a long-range combat aircraft for SAC. Strategic Air Command (SAC) was both a United States Department of Defense (DoD) Specified Command and a United States Air Force (USAF) Major Command (MAJCOM), responsible for Cold War command and control of two of the three components of the U.S. military's strategic nuclear strike forces, the so-called "nuclear triad", with SAC having control of land-based strategic bomber aircraft and intercontinental ballistic missiles or ICBMs (the third leg of the triad being submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) of the U.S. Navy). Radar Bomb Scoring became the preferred method of evaluating bomber crews, with the last of 888 simulated bomb runs scored against a bombing site near San Diego, California during 1946, subsequently increasing to 2,449 bomb runs by 1947. , SAC also created Emergency War Plan 1–49 (EWP 1–49), which outlined the means for delivering 133 atomic bombs, "...the entire stockpile...in a single massive attack..." on 70 Soviet cities over a 30-day period.. , While missile operations continued to ramp up, robust training for flight crews to ensure survivability for strike missions also continued. Lessons from Vietnam: Should SAC Perform Both Nuclear and Conventional Missions? , Since it was designed as a medium bomber, SAC's B-47 Stratojet traded speed for range. The JCS further defined SAC's secondary objective was to stop any Soviet advances into Western Europe, and its tertiary objective was the previous EWP 1–49 industrial mission. , In May 1948, in an exercise versus Air Defense Command's "Blue" force, a SAC "Red" strike force simulated attacks on Eastern Seaboard targets as far south as Virginia.