This result is especially important for developing countries like Pakistan where population growth is high and infant deaths are frequent. Bulletin of World Health Organization, 82(12), 947–949. World Health Statistics 2007. Unit root in time series models: Tests and implications. Southern Economic Journal, 52(2), 364–370. New York: Published for the World Bank by Oxford University Press. Asian Profile, 42(1), 11–22. The first contraction in decades, this reflects the effects of COVID-19 containment measures that followed monetary and fiscal tightening prior to the outbreak. Pakistan's population growth: the need for action. Siddiqui, R., & Mehmood, M. A. The effect of medical personnel availability on health status, particularly in reducing infant and child mortality, remains statistically non-significant despite the bidirectional causal relationship between this variable and the infant and child mortality. An increasing rate of illiteracy among the masses.4. Southern Economic Journal, 54(3), 666–674. This paper empirically examines factors related to social, economic, demographic and health care services that affect health status in Pakistan. Journal of development Studies, 14, 22–39. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-017-1702-5, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-017-1702-5, Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips, Not logged in Farag, M., et al. Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout. Gbesemete, K. P., & Jonsson, D. (1993). Health Policy and Planning, 10(4), 384–394. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 7(1), 133–150. By 2030 this number is expected to increase to 8.6 billion and eventually 11.2 billion by 2100. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 60, 13–19. United Nations projections are also included through the year 2100. ", Bidani, Benu & Ravallion, Martin, 1997. Pritchett, L., & Summers, L. H. (1996). Sen, A. This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access. New York: National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER). MPRA paper 6122. This paper empirically examines factors related to social, economic, demographic and health care services that affect health status in Pakistan. Pakistan’s economic freedom score is 54.8, making its economy the 135th freest in the 2020 Index. Exploring the effect of health care on mortality across OECD countries. Socio-economic determinants of life expectancy in Nigeria (1980–2011). ", Shahbaz, Muhammad & Loganathan, Nanthakumar & Mujahid, Nooreen & Ali, Amjad & Nawaz, Ahmed, 2015. Total fertility rate (fr) appears to have a significant effect on child mortality rate (cmr) with a negative sign both in the short and in long-run. Journal of Econometrics, 77, 125–139. World Bank discussion paper No. Scientific American, 2, 38–43. In the past, the country's population had a relatively high growth rate that has been changed by moderate birth rates. Pesaran, M. H., & Shin, Y. Filmer, D., & Pritchett, L. (1999). Critical values for cointegration tests. Public and private roles in health: Theory and financing patterns. The main determinants of infant mortality in Nepal, Determinants of Life Expectancy and its Prospects Under the Role of Economic Misery: A Case of Pakistan, Determinants of Life Expectancy and its Prospects under the Role of Economic Misery: A Case of Pakistan, Statistical analysis of cointegration vectors, The effects of infant mortality on fertility revisited: new evidence from latin america, Income Inequality, Illiteracy Rate, and Life Expectancy in Brazil, Faisal Abbas & Haroon Sarwar Awan, 2018. () (Independant Researcher and Consultant based in Islamabad Cornell University), () (University of Kansas Planning Commission of Pakistan, Pak Secretariat). Pakistan's extremely high rate of population growth is caused by a falling death rate combined with a continuing high birth rate. Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, 12, 231–254. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Pakistan’s population is expected to surpass that of Indonesia in 2048 when it will reach 331.29 million. Sathar, Z., & Zaidi, B. Principles of health economics in developing countries. Fayissa, B., & Gutema, P. (2005). Thematic Group on Rural Development and Food Security. Fetal, infant and maternal mortality during periods of economic instability. In S. Strom (Ed. Neonatal mortality and the economy revisited. Le Franc, E. (1989). Waldmann, R. (1992). Tests for unit roots: A Monte Carlo investigation. At Pakistan’s growth rate — 3.6 — a population doubles in 19.4 years. Mortality as an indicator of economic success and failure. (2014). Determinants of life expectancy and its prospects under the role of economic misery: A case of Pakistan. On average, in 1990 each family had 6.2 children, and only 11 percent of couples were regularly practicing contraception. - 126.96.36.199. The analysis is conducted using ARDL bound testing approach on annual data ranging from 1960 to 2014. Cheung, W.-W., Sharma, S., & Shield, M. P. (1986). Population growth: The impact on health and societies A United Nations report released in 2017 puts the current world population at 7.6 billion people. Social sector issues in Pakistan: An overview. Aggregate health care expenditure in the United States: Evidence from cointegration tests. Abbas, F., & Khan, I. Learn more about Institutional subscriptions. © 2020 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. In Labor Market and Social Policy Occasional Paper No. Health expenditures, health outcomes and the role of good governance. Rodgers, G. B. Applied Economic letters, 6, 271–273. Schell, C. O., Reilly, M., Rosling, M., Peterson, S., & Ekström, A. M. (2007). In 1950 the mortality rate was twenty-seven per 1,000 population; by 1990 the rate had dropped to twelve (estimated) per 1,000. (2003). Ramesh, M., & Sam, M. (2007). Infant mortality rate: The decrease in infant mortality rate is also a contributing factor. (1982). 2.Poor response of Population Dept.3. ", Alberto Palloni & Hantamala Rafalimanana, 1999. Income distribution and infant mortality. Thorton, J. In Pakistan, the proportion of employed population below $1.90 purchasing power parity a day in 2019 is 2.3%. Population Growth And Our Ecosystem Hanmer, L., Lensink, R., & Howard, W. (2003). The Pakistan Development Review, 35(4), 719–731. Its overall score has decreased by 0.2 point because of a drop in the fiscal health score. Benefo, K., & Scultz, T. P. (1996). Economics and Human Biology, 1(2), 55–75. (2001). ", Bishai, David & Opuni, Marjorie & Poon, Andrew, 2007. Engle, R. F., & Granger, C. W. (1987). Schultz, T. W. (1993). Pakistan’s real GDP growth is estimated to have declined from 1.9 percent in FY19 to -1.5 percent in FY20. Effects Of Aging And Population Growth On Health Costs. What Determines Health Status of Population in Pakistan?. (2012). Article (2005). An imbalance between death and birth rate. Sep 2, 2019. This is referred to as overpopulation. FAO (2015). World Bank Economic Review, 10(1), 123–158. The changing relationship between mortality and level of economic development. Soc Indic Res 139, 1–23 (2018). Feeney, G., & Alam, I. Chowdhury, A. R. (1988). The infant mortality-fertility debate: Some international evidence. Robey B. PIP: Despite the existence of a national family planning program that dates to 1965 Pakistan has not seen a reduction in the fertility rate. Economist Joseph Spengler has estimated that 4 percent of national income goes to support our 1 percent per year rate of population growth in the United States (17). Repetto, R. (1978). Infant mortality time series are random walks with drift: Are they cointegrated with socioeconomic variables? What determines public health expenditures in Pakistan? United Nation. Demography, 36, 337–342. GOP. This led to a ⁄urry of research looking at demographic variables and their e⁄ect on eco-nomic growth (for example Bloom et al., 2004; Webber, 2002) . But overpopulation is seldom discussed as a public health issue. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 107(4), 1283–1302. Flegg, A. T. (1982). International Journal of Health Services, 3(2), 145–159. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. This result is especially important for developing countries like Pakistan where population growth is high and infant deaths are frequent. Suwal, J. V. (2001). Schultz, T. P. (2004). Thus, it is important for the Government of Pakistan to design its policies based on the development targets in addition to the growth targets that have been set in place for the country. Journal of Human Resources, 30(4), 841–868. Economic survey of Pakistan 2011–2012. What are the determinants of health status in Latin America and the Caribbean?. Chart and table of Pakistan population from 1950 to 2020. Against the background of the demographic argument, presented in the preceding section, we must inquire into the social factors, broadly defined, that are involved in population growth and its control. Social Science and Medicine, 49, 1309–1323. Health in the developing world: Achieving the millennium development goals. (Eds.). Disease control priorities in developing countries. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division Expert Paper No. the various RePEc services. Reidpath, D. D., & Allotey, P. (2003). ", Muhammad Shahbaz & Nanthakumar Loganathan & Nooreen Mujahid & Amjad Ali & Ahmed Nawaz, 2016. Wealthier is healthier. UNDP. PAKISTAN VISION 2025 7 www.pc.gov.pk impact of population growth Pakistan’s population is projected to increase to over 227 million by 2025. Population Studies, 29(2), 231–248. World Bank. Between 1998 and 2017, Pakistan’s average population growth rate was 2.40%. Social Indicators Research Subscription will auto renew annually. ", Rehana Siddiqui & Mir Annice Mahmood, 1994. The analysis is conducted using ARDL bound testing approach on annual data ranging from 1960 to 2014. (2002). (2008) also investigated long-term positive impacts of health indicators (life expectancy, infant mortality rate, health expenditure and population per bed) on economic growth. American Economic Association (AEA) Papers and Proceedings, 83, 337–342. ", Pierre‐Yves Crémieux & Pierre Ouellette & Caroline Pilon, 1999. Downloadable! WHO. Empirica, 22, 1–21. B. Rao (Ed. One of the poorest countries in the world, Pakistan has 1 of the highest population growth rates in the world at about 3.0% annually. The study analyzed the effects of population on economic growth in case of Pakistan. Journal of Applied Econometrics, 16, 289–326. McGuire, A., Parkin, D., Hughes, D., & Gerard, K. (1993). Its population growth rate of 2.40 percent is the highest in South Asia and stands in sharp contrast to the 1.0–1.5 percent growth rate of other South Asian countries. These lessons are particularly relevant for developing countries while devising policy options for ", Lant Pritchett & Lawrence H. Summers, 1996. Kimhi, A. Manila: Asian Development Bank. For a population of over 220 million, this is a growth of about 5.28 million people per year. Correspondence to Population Studies, 30(2), 249–261. ", Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. Pakistan has no national health insurance system and 78 percent of the population pay health care expenses themselves. Bidani, B., & Ravallion, M. (1997). Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. ", Gbesemete, Kwame P. & Jonsson, Dick, 1993. An assessment of OECD health care system: Using panel data analysis. Banister, J., & Zhang, X. Infant mortality rate as an indicator of population health. The IPAT equation, first devised in the 1970s, is a way of determining environmental degradation based on a multiple of factors. (2011). Thus, it is important for the Government of Pakistan to design its policies based on the development targets in addition to the growth targets that have been set in place for the country. World Development, 33(1), 21–41. (1993). Social Science and Medicine, 53, 1667–1681. "The government of Pakistan wants to stabilize the population (achieve zero growth rate) by 2020.And maximizing the usage of family planning methods is one of the pillars of the population program". Jamison, D. T., Moseley, W. H., Measham, A. R., & Bobadilla, J. L. In 1950 the mortality rate was twenty-seven per 1,000; by 2008 it has fallen to 8.23 deaths per 1000 (see table 3.2). (2003). Asteriou, D. (2006). ", Alistair McGuire & David Parkin & David Hughes & Karen Gerard, 1993. In some years the population has a real problem for all over the world. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University at Carbondale. World Bank World Development Report 2011, Washington DC. Techniques for testing the constancy of regression relations over time. Faisal Abbas. Yet throughout this period, the birth rate was fortyfour per 1,000 population. Sen, A. These demographic projections raise a number of issues for the country. (1999). Cornel Food and nutrition policy program (CFNPP) working paper No. If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form . Inequality of income, illiteracy and medical care as determinants of infant mortality in underdeveloped countries. London: McMillan Publication. New York: St. Martin’s Press. Billion and eventually 11.2 billion by 2100 Lucia hanmer & Robert Lensink & Howard White 2003. An item in RePEc Statistics for autoregressive time series are random walks with:., Martin, 1997 ( 2006 ) mortality rates: does the level of economic instability Report 2011, DC. 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