There were many communities of people we now know as Caribs, including Galibi and various Arawakan speakers such as the Kalinago. Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-Born Population of the United States: 1850 to 1990. 2018. Immigration Pathways of Caribbean Immigrants and All Immigrants in the United States, 2017. Available online. Cubans intercepted at sea were returned to the island. Beginning in the 16th century, many were killed or expelled from the islands by European forces. Washington, DC: DHS Office of Immigration Statistics. The biggest migration to the Caribbean was a forced migration of enslaved people from Africa through the Transatlantic Slave Trade. United Nations Population Division. The growth rate declined gradually afterwards. 2 1.1. Caribbean immigrants are more likely to be employed in service occupations and production, transportation, and material moving occupations than the other two groups of workers (see Figure 5). Bermuda, 1868-9 Cat ref: ADM 195/5 f 31 Crown Copyright. 1400 16th St NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036 | ph. Jeanne Batalova is a Senior Policy Analyst at MPI and Manager of the Migration Data Hub. Caribbean immigrants were slightly more likely to have public health insurance coverage (40 percent) and less likely to have private coverage than the overall foreign-born population, with 52 percent of Caribbean immigrants having private insurance (see Figure 8). American FactFinder. Available online. Caribbean immigrants are more likely to be naturalized U.S. citizens than immigrants overall. Figure 9. In 2017, about 59 percent of Caribbean immigrants were naturalized citizens, compared to 49 percent of the total foreign-born population. Table 2. Merchants and plantation owners moved into the region. Most Caribbean immigrants to the United States prior to 1960 were labor migrants, including agricultural workers who came through the British West Indies guest worker program in the mid-1940s, but some were political exiles from Cuba. Two populations from the Caribbean in the past received special treatment under U.S. immigration law. Data table, August 31, 2018. Home The first wave of large-scale voluntary migration from the Caribbean to the United States began in the first half of the 20th century and consisted mostly of laborers, including guest workers from the British West Indies program who worked in U.S. agriculture in the mid-1940s, as well as political exiles from Cuba. Migration has constantly shaped the history of this region. In 2018, global remittances sent via formal channels to Caribbean countries equaled $12.6 billion, up 8 percent from $11.6 billion in 2017. 81, U.S. Census Bureau, Washington, DC, February 2006. Available online. St Kitts, 1816 Cat ref: CO 152/106 Crown Copyright. The early Caribbean was also a centre for piracy. Caribs lived in the Caribbean for thousands of years. Photograph of the Urgent in a floating dock. In school year (SY) 2017-18, 11,300 Caribbean students were enrolled in U.S. higher educational institutions, representing 1 percent of the total 1.1 million international students. Washington, DC: U.S. Census Bureau. Compared to the total foreign-born population, Caribbean immigrants are less likely to be Limited English Proficient (LEP), have lower educational attainment and income, and have higher poverty rates. Caribbean immigrants are much more likely to be insured than the overall foreign-born population. Sources: Data from U.S. Census Bureau 2010 and 2017 American Community Surveys (ACS); Campbell J. Gibson and Emily Lennon, "Historical Census Statistics on the Foreign-Born Population of the United States: 1850-2000" (Working Paper no. It is important to stress the heterogeneity of the region which is reflected on a composition of … Annual Remittances Data, December 2018 update. Available online. The level of Caribbean immigration picked up after the United States entered World War II in 1941. Because of its diversity, it is very hard for scholars to write a history of the Caribbean. Citizenship and Immigration Services (USCIS). Most immigrants from the Dominican Republic (78 percent), Trinidad and Tobago (77 percent), and Jamaica and Haiti (76 percent each) were of working age, while more than one-quarter (27 percent) of Cuban immigrants were seniors (ages 65 and older). The Caribbean-derived European component shows significant differentiation from parental Iberian populations, presumably as a result of founder effects during the colonization of the New World. Minneapolis, MN: IPUMS. From 1948 when the Empire Windrush arrived until 1952, between 1,000 and 2,000 people entered Britain each year, followed by a steady and rapid rise until 1957, when 42,000 migrants from the New Commonwealth, mainly from the Caribbean, entered. 202-266-1900, IF YOU HAVE QUESTIONS OR COMMENTS ABOUT THIS ARTICLE, CONTACT US AT, National Center on Immigrant Integration Policy, Language Access: Translation and Interpretation Policies and Practices, Latin America & The Caribbean Migration Portal, Illegal Immigration & Interior Enforcement, At the Starting Gate: The Incoming Biden Administration’s Immigration Plans, Visit the MPI Data Hub collection of interactive remittances tools, Dominican Immigrants in the United States, Cuban Immigrants in the United States in 2013, Haitian Immigrants in the United States in 2015, Rebuilding Self and Country: Deportee Reintegration in Jamaica, Cuban Migration: A Postrevolution Exodus Ebbs and Flows, United States Abandons its Harder Line on Haitian Migrants in the Face of Latest Natural Disaster, Normalization of Relations with Cuba May Portend Changes to U.S. Immigration Policy, Select Diaspora Populations in the United States, A Demographic Profile of Black Caribbean Immigrants in the United States. Immigrants from Trinidad and Tobago were most likely to be employed in management, business, science, and arts occupations (37 percent); while those from Haiti (38 percent) and the Dominican Republic (34 percent) were the mostly like to be in service occupations. Health Coverage for Caribbean Immigrants, All Immigrants, and the Native Born, 2017. World Bank. Very few immigrants from English-speaking Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago (2 percent each) were Limited English Proficient (LEP), while immigrants from Cuba (63 percent) and the Dominican Republic (64 percent) had very high LEP shares. The first wave of large-scale voluntary migration from the Caribbean to the United States began in the first half of the 20th century and consisted mostly of laborers, including guest workers from the British West Indies program who worked in U.S. agriculture in the mid-1940s, as well as political exiles from Cuba. Diversity Visa lottery: The Immigration Act of 1990 established the Diversity Visa lottery program to allow entry to immigrants from countries with low rates of immigration to the United States. Note: Limited English proficiency refers to those who indicated on the ACS questionnaire that they spoke English less than “very well.”. The Foreign Born from Latin America and the Caribbean: 2010. The eighties, however, evidenced several important and seminal works (including two … Since the abolition of racial slavery, movement within and away from the Caribbean has become a way of life for those seeking better job opportunities and financial stability for themselves and their families, due to the economic … Many people also migrated from the Caribbean and people convicted of crimes were sometimes transported to Australia and England. Beginning in 1943, thousands of migrant workers were brought from the region to work in American agriculture and thus help the wa… Further- more, as it is situated between North and South America, the Caribbean serves as a transit Visit the MPI Data Hub collection of interactive remittances tools, which track remittances by inflow and outflow, between countries, and over time. Select individual Caribbean countries from the dropdown menu. Migration Information Source, July 6, 2017. Temporary Protected Status: Overview and Current Issue. Jie Zong was an Associate Policy Analyst providing quantitative research support across MPI programs. Today, the region is subject to fluid internal as well as external movement of persons that migrate because of various causes : economic situation, human rights respect, government stability, and living conditions. Annual Remittance Flows to Caribbean, 1970-2018. In the late 18th century, Britain moved soldiers and sailors to the Caribbean to defend against invasion by competing European powers and guard against anti-slavery revolutions and protests. Source: MPI tabulation of data from the U.S. Census Bureau pooled 2013–17 ACS. The foreign-born population includes naturalized citizens, lawful permanent residents, refugees and asylees, legal nonimmigrants (including those on student, work, or other temporary visas), and persons residing in the country without authorization. St Kitts, 1816 Cat ref: CO 152/106 Crown Copyright. • Return migration of retirees to the Caribbean is a trend that has gained force in recent years, with the return of a large number of migrants who left in the 1960s (CEPAL, 2012). This largest forced migration in human history relocated some 50 ethnic and linguistic groups. No data are available for Anguilla, Bahamas, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Cuba, the former country of Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montserrat, Bonaire, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Turks and Caicos Islands.Source: MPI tabulations of data from the World Bank Prospects Group, “Annual Remittances Data,” December 2018 update. 2018. Available online. St. Vincent, 1796 Cat ref: CO 260/14 Crown Copyright. 2018. More than 90 percent of Caribbean immigrants came from five countries: Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Haiti, and Trinidad and Tobago (see Table 1). Statistical abstract of migration between Trinidad and neighbouring countries. Click here for an interactive map that highlights the metropolitan areas with the highest concentrations of immigrants from the Caribbean and other countries. According to August 2018 data from U.S. Since people born in Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands are native born to the United States, these territories are not included in the list of countries in the Caribbean under the Census Bureau’s definition. The migration of colonial citizens began slowly. Distribution of Caribbean Immigrants by Country of Birth, 2014. The foundation of Caribbean culture was based on the forced migration of African people, indentured east-Indian workers, the migration and colonization’s of European powers like the Spanish, British, and French. The Caribs killed the Arawak men and enslaved the women, triggering another wave of migration that sent the Arawaks fleeing as far west as Cuba and … About two-thirds of immigrants from Jamaica (66 percent) and Trinidad and Tobago (65 percent) were covered by private insurance, while sizable shares of those from Cuba (41 percent) and the Dominican Republic (49 percent) had public coverage. The law states that 55,000 diversity visas in total are to be made available each fiscal year. 2018. 2017. With the notable exception of Jamaica, all major Caribbean nations were under direct U.S. political control at some point, which has created incentives and opportunities for the nationals of these islands to migrate to the United States. (Photo: maisa_nyc/Flickr). 202-266-1940 | fax. The Caribbean countries have historically experienced large-scale incoming and outgoing migration. All content is available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated. Source: Migration Policy Institute (MPI) tabulation of data from the U.S. Census Bureau 2017 American Community Survey (ACS). They migrated to the Caribbean to work on plantations in places such as Jamaica, Trinidad and British Guiana. Jamaica, 21 August 1861 Cat ref: CO 137/356/25 f 189 Crown Copyright. Indentured migration from the Indian subcontinent in the nineteenth century, for example, explains why Hinduism is one of the main religions practised in Guyana today. They took advantage of the rapidly expanding war economy and postwar economic growth. The Spanish were brought here by the avarice for gold and the famed El Dorado; the Africans were abducted from their homelands; the French were displaced by the French Revolution and by the capture of other Caribbean islands by the British; the British came with the colonial establishment, and the impoverished and … Available online. Despatch regarding medical expenses for enslaved Africans captured on French ship La Belle. DACA Population Data. 6 Data collection constraints do not permit inclusion of those who gained citizenship of a Caribbean island nation via naturalization and later moved to the United States. Caribbean culture is affected greatly by migration. In 2017, 23 percent of Caribbean immigrants had not finished high school, compared to 28 percent of all immigrants and 9 percent of U.S.-born adults. Employed Workers in the Civilian Labor Force (ages 16 and older) by Occupation and Origin, 2017. Similar to the overall immigrant population, most Caribbean immigrants who obtain green cards do so through family reunification channels. Available online. Caribbean immigrant adults overall (ages 25 and older) were more likely to have graduated from high school than overall foreign-born adults but had lower share of college graduates. Figure 7. Eastern Caribbean emigrant families to New York and Toronto (MAB, 1981; Marshall, 1984a, 1984b). Using data from a variety of sources, including the U.S. Census Bureau and the United National Population Division, the report begins by briefly discussing the history of migration from Caribbean countries. The early Caribbean was also a centre for piracy. Immigrants from Trinidad and Tobago (27 percent) and Jamaica (24 percent) had the highest share of college graduates, while one-third (33 percent) of immigrants from the Dominican Republic did not graduate from high school. From 2000, the population increased 26 percent, to 3.7 million, in 2010, and grew another 18 percent, to 4.4 million, in 2017. Around AD 1200 the peaceable Arawaks were happily farming, fishing and minding their own business when the Caribs from South America started fanning out over the Caribbean. Some Haitian immigrants who have been in the United States since a massive 2010 earthquake devastated Haiti were granted Temporary Protected Status (TPS) to remain in the United States. Bonham Richardson made contributions to Caribbean migration research in his earlier work on labor mobility in Guyana (Richardson 1975). Maps of the Foreign Born in the United States. This can be explained by historical factors as well as factors relating to the limitations of size and therefore of opportunities, in small island environments. Note: Pooled 2013–17 ACS data were used to get statistically valid estimates at the state level for smaller-population geographies. Check out our maps. The biggest migration to the Caribbean was a forced migration of enslaved people from Africa through the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Many of the merchants who settled in the Caribbean during the 17th and 18th centuries were involved in slave trading. Immediate relatives of U.S. citizens: Includes spouses, minor children, and parents of U.S. citizens. The Caribbean diaspora in the United States is comprised of almost 8 million individuals who were either born in a Caribbean island nation or reported ancestry of a given country in the Caribbean, according to tabulations from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2017 ACS. Interested in the top immigrant populations in your state or metro area? The subsequent waves consisted mostly of their family members and working-class individuals. Source: MPI tabulation of data from the U.S. Census Bureau 2017 ACS. In 2017, households headed by a Caribbean immigrant had a median income of $47,000, compared to $56,700 and $60,800 for all immigrant and U.S.-born households, respectively. In 2017, 16 percent of Caribbean immigrants were uninsured, versus 20 percent of all immigrants and 7 percent of the native born (see Figure 8). These policies led to large increases in the U.S. Cuban population. Click on the bullet points below for more information: In the 2013–17 period, the majority of immigrants from the Caribbean lived in Florida (41 percent) or New York (26 percent). 2017 American Community Survey. The Caribbean migration context The propensity for Caribbean migration has always been and continues to be high. Click here to view an interactive map showing where migrants from Caribbean island nations and other countries have settled worldwide. The 1966 Cuban Adjustment Act (CAA) and the 1994 and 1995 U.S.-Cuba Migration Accords set the groundwork for what eventually became known as the “wet-foot, dry-foot” policy, which provided a pathway to legal permanent residency after one year of residence for Cubans who reached the United States via land, with or without a valid visa. 2018. On average, Caribbean immigrants are older than the overall foreign-born population. Migration history Indo-Caribbeans in the 19th century celebrating the Indian culture in West Indies through dance and music. Even though Homeland Security Secretary Kirstjen Nielsen announced the termination of TPS for Haitians in July 2019, citing improved livelihood in Haiti, the decision was enjoined by a U.S. district court pending the outcome of the legal challenge. Figure 2. Top Concentrations of Caribbean Immigrants by Metropolitan Area, 2013-17. » “The History of Afro-Caribbean Migration to the United States,” in The Schomburg Center, ed., In Motion: The African American Migration Experience website (plus statistical tables, bibliography and weblinks, commissioned by and submitted to the Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture). As part of the efforts to normalize U.S.-Cuba diplomatic relationships, President Obama ended the dry-foot part of the policy in early 2017. Many of the merchants who settled in the Caribbean during the 17th and 18th centuries were involved in slave trading. Duany, Jorge. Acosta, Yesenia and Patricia de la Cruz. The U.S. Census Bureau defines the foreign born as individuals who had no U.S. citizenship at birth. Copyright © 2001-2020 Migration Policy Institute. Dancers celebrate Caribbean Day in New York City. Caribbean cuisine is varied, but most dishes found in Brooklyn map a history of migration, whether voluntary or because of brutal slavery or indentured servitude. So-called ‘Liberated Africans’ were also indentured during this time. The migration accelerated in the 1960s when U.S. companies recruited large numbers of English-speaking workers (from laborers to nurses) from former English colonies (e.g., Jamaica). Want to learn more about immigrants to the United States from Mexico, India, Canada, or many other countries? This article uses the U.S. Census Bureau’s definition of the Caribbean region, which includes Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Bahamas, Barbados, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, the former country of Guadeloupe (including St. Barthélemy and Saint-Martin), Haiti, Jamaica, Martinique, Montserrat, the former country of the Netherlands Antilles (including Bonaire, Curaçao, Saba, Sint Eustatius, and Sint Maarten), St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Trinidad and Tobago, and Turks and Caicos Islands. Account of the number of enslaved persons in the colony of Grenada, 1807 Cat ref: CO 101/45 f 190 Crown Copyright. Migration, after all, is a fundamental part of the Caribbean experience. Jamaica (2,800), the Bahamas (2,200), and the Dominican Republic (1,500) were the top three origin countries. Dominicans were the most likely to be in poverty (22 percent). The David M. Rubenstein Rare Book & Manuscript Library wishes to thank the individuals who have donated materials to the Collection including Holly Ackerman, Stephen Brown, Dr. Elizabeth Campisi, Siro del Castillo, Guarioné Díaz, Mariela … Working Paper No. • 1492 Spanish discovery of Lucayan Archipelago, Hispaniola and Cuba. In contrast, skilled professionals have consistently constituted a relatively high share of Jamaican immigrants to the United States. The Caribbean is composed of people from all over the world including those taken there by force and those who migrated freely. Between SYs 2016-17 and 2017-18, the number of Caribbean students in the United States decreased slightly from 11,400 to 11,300. One example is Brigands’ War, also known as the Second Carib War (1794 -1798). Table 1. Today, Cubans who attempt to enter the United States via land without a visa are considered inadmissible and are subject to deportation. Caribbean Migration and History - Oakland Campus: Books & Reference Resources This guide is intended for doing library and Internet research on Caribbean history with emphasis on Caribbean migration. Top States of Residence for Caribbean Immigrants in the United States, 2013-17. Home U.S. Former enslaved people came from Canada to join the West India Regiment. Age Distribution of the U.S. Population by Origin, 2017. It takes a comparative perspective on the Caribbean people's migratory experiences to North America, Europe, and within the Caribbean. Using data from the U.S. Census Bureau (the most recent 2017 American Community Survey [ACS] as well as pooled 2013–17 ACS data) and the Department of Homeland Security’s Yearbook of Immigration Statistics, this Spotlight provides information on the Caribbean population in the United States, focusing on its size, geographic distribution, and socioeconomic characteristics. A monthly round-up of news, blogs, offers and events. Not shown are the populations in Alaska and Hawaii, which are small in size; for details, visit the MPI Data Hub to view an interactive map showing geographic distribution of immigrants by state and county, available online.Source: MPI tabulation of data from U.S. Census Bureau pooled 2013–17 ACS. Similarly, in 2017, approximately 17 percent of Caribbean immigrants were living in poverty, a higher rate than for the native born (13 percent) and for immigrants overall (15 percent). Wilson, Jill. U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Office of Immigration Statistics. Caribbean Migration and History - Oakland Campus: Primary & Secondary Sources This guide is intended for doing library and Internet research on Caribbean history with emphasis on Caribbean migration. Together, these counties account for about 41 percent of the Caribbean immigrant population in the United States. Caribbean immigrants participate in the labor force at the same rate as the overall foreign-born population. Only a small portion of the enslaved - less than half a million - were sent to North America. Approximately 21 percent of Caribbean adults had a bachelor’s degree or higher, versus 31 percent of all immigrant and 32 percent of native-born adults. On average, household incomes of Caribbean immigrants are lower than the overall foreign- and native-born populations. In fiscal year (FY) 2017, 66 percent of the roughly 174,500 Caribbean immigrants who became lawful permanent residents (LPRs) that year did so as either immediate relatives or other family members of U.S. citizens or LPRs, the same rate as the new LPRs from all countries. Note: Socioeconomic characteristics (based on ACS data) are available only for immigrants from the Caribbean overall and those from Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago due to sample size considerations. 2006. intraregional migration flows, and experiences considerable return migration. Click here for a map showing state and counties where unauthorized immigrants from select countries of origin reside in the United States. ---. The level of dependence on remittances varies significantly by country: remittances accounted for more than one-quarter (27 percent) of Haiti’s GDP, while the share was much lower in Trinidad and Tobago (0.6 percent) and Grenada (0.1 percent). Caribbean Immigrants and All Immigrants in the United States by Period of Arrival, 2017. Not shown are the populations in Alaska and Hawaii, which are small in size.Source: MPI tabulation of data from U.S. Census Bureau pooled 2013–17 ACS. 1400 16th St NW, Suite 300, Washington, DC 20036 ph. IPUMS USA: Version 8.0 [dataset]. Figure 6. Individuals born in the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Haiti, and several United Kingdom dependent territories in the Caribbean (Anguilla, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Montserrat, and Turks and Caicos Islands) are not eligible for the DV 2020 lottery.Source: MPI tabulation of data from Department of Homeland Security (DHS), 2017 Yearbook of Immigration Statistics (Washington, DC: DHS Office of Immigration Statistics, 2018), available online. Immigrants from Trinidad and Tobago (70 percent) and Jamaica (68 percent) had the highest naturalization rates, while those from the Dominican Republic (52 percent) were the least likely to be naturalized. Remittances sent to the Caribbean have grown steady since 1990 despite a small decline after the 2007-09 Great Recession. The Caribbean Sea Migration Collection documents the history of these mariners. The biggest migration to the Caribbean was a forced migration of enslaved people from Africa through the Transatlantic Slave Trade. Caribbean immigrants are slightly less likely than the overall foreign-born population to be of working age (18 to 64; see Figure 4). Access from Steven Ruggles, Sarah Flood, Ronald Goeken, Josiah Grover, Erin Meyer, Jose Pacas, and Matthew Sobek. Depending on the origin country and period of arrival, immigrants from the Caribbean have varying skill levels, racial composition, language background, and motivations for migration. Considered as refugees, Cubans reaching U.S. soil were also eligible to receive social services and public benefits to facilitate their initial integration. Note: Pooled 2013–17 ACS data were used to get statistically valid estimates at the metropolitan statistical-area level for smaller-population geographies. The United States is by far the top destination for Caribbean emigrants outside of the region, followed by Canada (405,000), Spain (294,000), and the United Kingdom (232,000), according to mid-2017 estimates by the United Nations Population Division. Seventy years ago today—June 22, 1948—a passenger ship carrying 492 Jamaican immigrants arrived in Essex, London. Click here for an interactive chart showing changes in the number of immigrants from the Caribbean in the United States over time. They asserted their identity by fighting for land and political rights. External migration from the Caribbean has continued to increase over the years, with significant levels of migration occurring in countries such as, Jamaica, Guyana, Suriname, and St. Lucia.5 It has been argued that the Caribbean has lost over five million people over the last fifty years. N.d. 2017 American Community Survey (ACS). Cuban Migration: A Postrevolution Exodus Ebbs and Flows. Figure 4. At the same time, political instability in Cuba, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic propelled emigration of the members of the elite and skilled professionals. Notes: Family-sponsored preference: Includes adult children and siblings of U.S. citizens as well as spouses and children of green-card holders. About 66 percent of the Caribbean and overall immigrant populations ages 16 and over were in the civilian labor force in 2017, compared to 62 percent of the native born. Use our interactive maps, with the latest available data, to learn where immigrant populations, by country or region of birth, live in the United States—at state, county, and metro levels. Note: The sum of shares by type of insurance is likely to be greater than 100 because people may have more than one type of insurance.Source: MPI tabulation of data from the U.S. Census Bureau 2017 ACS. , it is very hard for scholars to write a history of the enslaved - less “! 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